Thomas Pain (1915-2003)

By B. Verdcourt, A.H. Wood, and B. Rowson

Extracted from Journal of Conchology, Volume 38, pp. 179–191.
Tom Pain

Tom Pain who died aged 87 on 2nd. June 2003 had a remarkably wide knowledge of both marine and non-marine molluscs, both recent and fossil. He will be remembered mostly for his extensive work on tropical African non-marine molluscs (much of it together with T.E. Crowley). He was particularly interested in ampullariids and achatinids. His favourite marines were the whelks. He quite definitely was not keen on tiny species.

He was born at Brentwood, Essex on the 13th. October 1915 during a zeppelin raid on London. His father Tom married a wealthy lady Clara Freeman and there were three children. The eldest, Henry, was 17 years older than Tom and after Sandhurst had obtained a commission in the army; the youngest, Catherine, became a nurse. He went Brentwood public school where he enjoyed rugby and cross country running. His interest in natural history developed early. During summer holidays he went with his nanny and sister to Walton on the Naze and discovered butterflies, moths and fossils. The area is an ideal one with diverse habitats of grassland, scrubby woodland and salt marsh apart from the London Clay and Red Crag deposits. Whilst still at school in the early 1930’s he worked as an assistant to the curator of the Chelmsford and Essex Museum — at first voluntarily but later as a paid worker. One of his first jobs concerned sorting out a box of shells from the Ritson collection which was the start of his interest; collection contained some Ampullaria which were to become his specialisation. Whilst working on this collection he visited the Natural History Museum and met Major G.I. Crawford then head of the mollusc section. He was introduced to Hugh Fulton, the surviving partner of the shell dealers Sowerby & Fulton. He also met E.G. Alderson the author of the revision of Ampullaria who died in 1933. This gave great impetus to Tom’s growing interest in Mollusca. He began to study for a geology degree at Imperial College but in 1938 gave this up to become curator of the Georgetown Museum in what was then British Guiana. He stayed there three years, during which time he had the great good fortune to join an expedition to Mt. Roraima, the great flat plateau at the junction Brazil, Venezuela and Guyana which had inspired Conan Doyle’s ‘Lost World’. There were no dinosaurs of course and virtually no mammals or snails but they collected butterflies and other insects. Much of it is in the Hope Department of Entomology at Oxford University Museum. The swamps around Georgetown were ideal habitats for ampullarids and his interest in the family grew. The climate in Georgetown is appalling and he opted not to do another tour of duty there but went to Jamaica where he invested and helped run a hotel business. He also collected and sold snails and marine shells to the well known dealer Walter Freeman Webb. He was lucky to be able to visit the famous cockpit area with its innumerable operculate snails. From Jamaica he visited Cuba, the Cayman Islands and Nicaragua. He collected land snails for Paul Bartsch of the U.S. National Museum. A collection of Jamaican marine shells is in the Chelmsford Museum.

Tom Pain at a drawer of Ampullaria
Tom Pain at a drawer of Ampullaria shells.
Photo c. 1965

The hotel business ceased to be viable and in 1941 Tom decided to return to England but the Fyffes’ banana boat he travelled in was torpedoed. A Royal Mail ship bound for Buenos Aires very fortunately sighted the lifeboat he was in and he arrived in Buenos Aires just before Christmas 1941. Christmas was spent luxuriously with the British Ambass at the Embassy. Tom made light of this enemy action but he was lucky to have survived. He finally reached Liverpool in the Blue Star liner Andalusia Star and fortunately without incident save that the ship which was of course in convoy was so much faster that it was eventually given permission to go it alone.

He was of course called up and joined the Royal Corps of Signals but later transferred the Royal Army Education Corps for the rest of the war stationed at Dover. After being demobbed he worked for British Rail for 35 years based on St. Pancras, first as a guard but eventually as a Senior Conductor. This had great practical benefits since he could travel for almost nothing for the rest of his life. The rest of us who had to pay a King’s ransom for a short journey were always envious!

Tom Pain admiring an Achantina shell
Tom Pain admiring an Achatina shell.
Photo c. 1965

Just after the war his interest in molluscs intensified and he joined the Malacological Society in January 1946 and the Conchological Society at the end of the same year. He had been very unfortunate with his collections from America. Those he had with him went down with the boat and those in Georgetown Museum were destroyed when that was burnt down in the 1944 fire. Only material he had posted home survived including specimens later to become types of several new species. His collection and library grew very quickly and occupied more room than anything else. When Fulton died his wife was left with the shell business including a huge collection. Despite help from A. Blok and G. Wilkins it proved impossible to make the business pay during the war. Tom had been left some money and bought the land and freshwater part. He became friendly with Major Connolly the expert on African non-marine Mollusca who was an honorary worker at the Natural History Museum and helped him as an honorary curator. Connolly died in 1947 and although he had officially given much of his huge collection to the Museum years before quite a lot of material and books passed to Tom. Tom often told the story of having been introduced by Malcolm to his son Cyril Connolly with the words this is my son — he is a fool! A rather harsh judgement on an old Etonian who, even before his father’s death, was a literary giant.

I was always amazed at the number of times Tom changed his address in the early days until he ended up in Landseer Buildings then Reynolds House in Millbank just behind the Tate Gallery. I remember him telling me that the rent was much less than he would have had to pay to keep his books and collections in a warehouse! He could produce almost any book you needed and specimens of almost any genus. Eventually some of it had to go and he pruned his collections and sent a great deal to the Melvill-Tomlin collection at Cardiff. His land and freshwater material and whelks will go this institution. A card index which Tom kept shows that he had holotypes or paratypes of 232 taxa. The collection included material from classical collections such as G.B. Sowerby III and E.G. Alderson.*

There was undoubtedly friction between Tom and the Mollusca Department of the Natural History Museum which resulted in him not being allowed to work there. He had early annoyed Major G.I. Crawford by very foolishiy putting a degree after his name to which he was not entitled. Crawford was a stickler and went out of his way to investigate. Apart from this he undoubtedly borrowed material without proper permission. I became innocently involved in this because he gave me some material to photograph and when the photographs were published (PAIN 1949c) they were acknowledged to the British Museum photographer! I said nothing to anybody not even to Tom. I suspect it was Bill Rees who found out. He had been in charge of molluscs since just after the war. He did not like Connolly or Tom nor me – all amateurs. In fact he warned me to beware of Connolly’s determinations! None of this mattered since Tom collaborated with Crowley who had always had good relations with the department.

Tom left the Malacological Society about ten years after joining. The Conchological Society was very much to his taste and he was a very regular attender at meetings until the end of his life and very frequently put on interesting exhibits. He joined the council in 1967 and became President in 1970–71; his Presidential Address was of course on the Ampullariidae [PAIN 1972b]. Above all he will be remembered as the officer who for years arranged field meetings; he had a particular flair for this – possibly the discipline of work on the railways had something to do with it. He also arranged geology and land snail field meetings for other societies particularly the Northampton Natural History Society of which he became President.

Tom was admitted a Fellow of the Linnean Society in 1972 and there is no doubt he enjoyed attending meetings of scientific societies. He was an enthusiastic member of the British Shell Collectors’ Club of which he was president in 1977–1979 and 1994–1997. He had in later life become interested in British marine mollusca and worldwide Buccinidae and Muricidae. He also had a large collection of Jurassic ammonites which he eventually sold.

Apart from molluscs he was interested in Egyptology and archaeology in general. He helped Sir Mortimer Wheeler and Margaret Murray with shell identifications. Trees, especially conifers, interested him and the larger fungi.

Tom married Doreen Gantzer before the war and they had one son Christopher. Later he met Marjorie Whittaker who changed her name by deed poll to Pain and they had a daughter Susan. Tom and Marjorie separated in 1957 and she settled in Kenya where she worked at St Andrews School at Turi. She retained her interest in snails and some of her collections are in the National Museum of Kenya including some new taxa. Marjorie Powell was killed in a motor accident a few years later. Tom later married Celia Janet Honnor who had joined our Society in 1966.

Undoubtedly Tom and Celia did a great deal to encourage people to support our Society by their enthusiasm for molluscs and great support of its meetings and helped keep the Society in the best traditions of those catering for amateur natural historians.

I am very grateful to Celia Pain for many of the details about Tom’s life which despite knowing him over 55 years I knew nothing about.

* It would be out of place to attempt to list all these but it is hoped Cardiff will prepare a catalogue in due course.


Scientific Papers

PAIN T. 1946a Two new species of Pila (= Ampullaria) from South America Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 26: 180–181, pl. 6.
PAIN T. 1946b On Pila canaliculata and its locality Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 27: 58–59.
PAIN T. 1948 Shell collection of the late Revd. E.G. Alderson with special reference to the genus Pila Röding Journal of Conchology 22: 299–302 (with A. Blok).
PAIN T. 1949a Placostylus falcicola (Gassies) Journal of Conchology 23: 39–40.
PAIN T. 1949b The distribution of Pila speciosa (Philippi) Journal of Conchology 23: 69–70.
PAIN T. 1949c Three new species of Pomacea Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 27: 257–258, pl. 13.
PAIN T. 1949d On the types of three species of Pomacea described by G.B. Sowerby III Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 28: 39–40, pl. 1,2
PAIN T. 1950a Pomacea (Ampullariidae) of British Guiana. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 28: 63–74, pl. 6–8.
PAIN T. 1950b A new species of Pomacea (Limnopomus) from Venezuela. Journal of Conchology 23: 109–111.
PAIN T. 1951a Pomacea hanleyana (Alderson).Journal of Conchology 23: 145–146, figs 1—9.
PAIN T. 1951b The type of Pila nyanzae (Smith) Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 28: 230–231, pl. 28.
PAIN T. 1952a Notes on the Pomacea of Surinam with special reference to Ampullaria sowerbyi Vernhout. Basteria 16: 30–32 (1952).
PAIN T. 1952b A new species of Pomacea from Bolivia.Journal of Conchology 23: 267–268, p1. 7 (with W. Blume).
PAIN T. 1952c Notes on Pila ovata Oliver (sic) and its distribution in Africa. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 46: 286–292.
PAIN T. 1953a A giant E. African Achatina. Journal of Conchology 23: 298.
PAIN T. 1953b Sinistrality in Achatina fulica Bowdich Journal of Conchology 23: 370–371, p1. 14.
PAIN T. 1953c Pomacea ghiesbreghti (Reeve) in Guatemala. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 29: 222–223.
PAIN T. 1954a New freshwater Gastropod Mollusks of the African genus Lanistes. Breviora 31:1–4, fig. 1–2.
PAIN T. 1954b Notes on a collection of non-marine Mollusca from semi-arid areas of East Africa. Journal of Conchology 23: 398–401.
PAIN T. 1955 Notes on some New Caledonia Placostylus. Journal de Conchyliologie 95: 11–19, 9 figs.
PAIN T. 1956a On a collection of Pomacea from Colombia with description of a new subspecies. Journal of Conchology 24: 71–79.
PAIN T. 1956b Notes on the generic names Pomacea and Ampullarius. Journal of Conchology 24: 79.
PAIN T. 1956c Further notes of the non-marine Mollusca from semi-arid areas of East Africa. Journal of Conchology 24: 142–143.
PAIN T. 1956d Revision of the Melaniidae of British Guiana and Surinam. Basteria 20: 91–105, figs 1–11.
PAIN T. 1957a Pomacea of the Sierra de Merida, Venezuela. Journal of Conchology 24: 175–176.
PAIN T. 1957b On the occurrence of Achatina stuhlmanni v. Martens in Kenya. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 56: 345–348.
PAIN T. 1958a On a new subspecies of Placostylus fibratus (Martyn) from New Caledonia.Journal of Conchology 24: 276–277, pl. 8.
PAIN T. 1958b On an unfigured species of Plekocheilus (Eurytus) from Colombia.Journal of Conchology 24: 234–235, pl 7 (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1958c Descripcion de una especie nueva de Pomacea de Venezuela (Mesogastropoda, Architaenioglossa, Mollusca). Novedades Cientificas Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural La Salle Serie Zoologica 24: 5–11, p1. i, ii (with C. Arias).
PAIN T. 1958d Apple snails (Ampullaria). Fishkeeping & Water Life 13: 549–550 figs (with J.A. Willson).
PAIN T. 1958e Malayan sand snails (Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Müller)). Fishkeeping & Water Life 13: 117–118 figs. (with J.A. Willson).
PAIN T. 1959a River snails Aquarist and Pondkeeper 24: 130–131, 4 figs. (with J.A. Willson).
PAIN T. 1959b A giant Achatina from the Belgian Congo (Achatina (Achatina) balteata infrafusca von Martens) Journal of Conchology 24: 356.
PAIN T. 1959c Orthalicus (Metorthalicus) labeo (Broderip) a rare Peruvian land snail. Journal of Conchology 24: 357–358.
PAIN T. 1959d A monographic revision of the African land snails of the genus Burtoa Bourguignat. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Beige Tervuren Série in 8º Sciences Zoologiques 79: 1–35, pl. 1–3 (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1960a On the distribution and synonymy of Strophocheilus (Megalobulimus) lichtensteini (Albers) Journal of Conchology 24: 378 (1960).
PAIN T. 1960b Pomacea (Ampullariidae) of the Amazon river system. Journal of Conchology 24: 421–432.
PAIN T. 1961a Introduction to Molluscan taxonomy. Conchologists' Newsletter 2: 9–10.
PAIN T. 1961b Introduction to Molluscan taxonomy. Conchologists' Newsletter 3: 14–15.
PAIN T. 1961c Pfeiffer's unfigured species of Strophocheilus (Megalobulimus). Breviora 138: 1–8, 6 figs. (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1961d A revision of the freshwater mussels of the family Etheriidae.Journal of Conchology 25: 2–8 (with F.B. Woodward).
PAIN T. 1961e On the occurrence of Burtoa nilotica (Pfeiffer) in Ethiopia. Journal of Conchology 25: 38 (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1961f Revision of the African Ampullariidae species of the genus Pila Röding 1798 (Mesogastropoda, Architaenioglossa, Mollusca). Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale Tervuren Série in 8º Sciences Zoologiques 96: 1–27.
PAIN T. 1961g A monograph of the African land snails of the genus Limicolariopsis d'Ailly (Mollusca, Achatinidae) Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale Tervuren Série in 8º Sciences Zoologiques 101: 1–36, pl. 1–3 (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1961h Description of new Achatinidae from the Congo and Nyasaland (Mollusca, Pulmonata). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 64: 138–152, figs. 1–8 (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1962a Introduction to Molluscan taxonomy. Conchologists' Newsletter 4: 20.
PAIN T. 1962b Introduction to Molluscan taxonomy. Conchologists' Newsletter 5: 24–25.
PAIN T. 1962c The African freshwater bivalve Aspatharia (Spathopsis) rubens (Lamarck) its synonymy and distribution. Journal of Conchology 25: 73–78 pl. 5 (with F.R. Woodward).
PAIN T. 1962d On the occurrence of Achatina tavaresiana Morelet in Tanganyika Territory. Journal of Conchology 25: 82 (with B. Verdcourt).
PAIN T. 1962e Review of F.F. Laidlaw & A. Solem ‘The land snail genus Amphidromus. A synoptic catalogue’ Journal of Conchology 25: 87.
PAIN T. 1962f Austroborus Parodiz a new name for Microborus Pilsbry. Journal of Conchology 25: 133.
PAIN T. 1963a The Strophocheilidae: a neotropical family of terrestrial molluscs. Conchologists' Newsletter 8: 41–43.
PAIN T. 1963b Pila letourneuxi (Bourguignat), its synonymy and distribution. Journal of Conchology 25: 152–155, pl. 9.
PAIN T. 1963c Achatininae in B. Verdcourt. The Miocene non-marine Mollusca of Rusinga Island, Lake Victoria and other localities in Kenya. Palaeontographica 121 Abt. A: 14–15 (with T.E.Crowley).
PAIN T. 1964a The Viviparidae. Conchologists' Newsletter 11: 70–72 (with D. Beatty).
PAIN T. 1964b The Pomacea flagellata complex in Central America. Journal of Conchology 25: 224–231 pl. 13
PAIN T. 1964c On Limicolariopsis d'hericourtiana (Bourguignat) Journal of Conchology 25: 265–267 fig. (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1964d Achatina (Lissachatina) tavaresiana Morelet; its synonymy and distribution Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 69: 121–131, figs. (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1964e Supplementary notes on the genus Limicolariopsis d'Ailly (Mollusca – Achatinidae). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 69: 189–194, pl. 1 (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1964f A monographic of the African bivalves of the genus Pleiodon Conrad (= Iridina authors) (Mollusca – Mutelidae). Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale Série in 8º Sciences Zoologiques 130: 1–33, pl. 1–4 (with F.R. Woodward).
PAIN T. 1964g A monographic review of the Mollusca of Lake Nyasa Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale Série in 8º Sciences Zoologiques 131: 1–58, pl. 1–7, map (with T.E. Crowley & F.R. Woodward).
PAIN T. 1964h A new species of freshwater gastropod Mollusca of the genus Saulea from the Miocene of Kenya. Breviora 212: 1–5, p1. 1–3 (with D. Beatty).
PAIN T. 1964i A short glossary of molluscan terms. Conchological Society: Papers for Students No. 4, 9 pp.
PAIN T. 1965 Land operculates of the New World. Conchologists' Newsletter 15: 98–99.
PAIN T. 1966 Distribution of the Acavidae. Conchologists' Newsletter 12: 113–115. (1966).
PAIN T. 1967a Some collecting experiences in British Guiana. Conchologists' Newsletter 20: 139–140.
PAIN T. 1967b The land mollusca of the Bembridge limestone. Proceedings of the Isle of Wight Natural History and Archaeological Society 6: 101–111 (reprinted 1968) (with R.C. Preece).
PAIN T. 1967c Further notes on the genus Limicolariopsis d'Ailly (Mollusca, Achatinidae). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 75: 31–34 (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1967d Studies in the genus Pseudachatina Albers (Mollusca, Achatinidae) Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale Tervuren Série in 8º Sciences Zoologiques 159: 1–79, pl. 1–5, text figures (with C.R.C. Paul).
PAIN T. 1968a Some collecting experiences in British Guiana ll Conchologists' Newsletter 24: 34–36.
PAIN T. 1968b A monograph of the African bivalves of the genera Brazzaea Bourguignat, Mweruella Haas, Prisodontopsis Tomlin and Pseudospatha Simpson. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 77:190–220, pl. 3, 4 (with F.R. Woodward).
PAIN T. 1970 A monographic revision of the African land snails of the genus Limicolaria Schumacher (Mollusca – Achatinidae) Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale Série in 8º Sciences Zoologiques 77: 1–61, pl. 1–6 (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1972a Achatina fulica Bowdich – a much travelled African Snail. Conchologists' Newsletter 43: 280–281.
PAIN T. 1972b The Ampullariidae, an historical survey Journal of Conchology 27: 453–462 [Presidential Address].
PAIN T. 1974a The genus Neptunea in Britain Newsletter of British Shell Collectors Club No 10 & Conchologists' Newsletter 50: 390–391.
PAIN T. 1974b The land operculate genus Pollicaria Gould (Gastropoda), a systematic revision. Journal of Conchology 28: 173–178 pl. 6.
PAIN T. 1974c A survey of the Mollusca of Lake Chad, Central Africa.Revue de Zoologie Africaine 88:311–328, map (with N.F. McMillan).
PAIN T. 1976a Review of R.H. Fair ‘The Murex book’ Conchologists' Newsletter 59: 458–459.
PAIN T. 1976b Arthur Blok (1882—1974) Journal of Conchology 29: 67–68.
PAIN T. 1976c On the status of Murex osseus Reeve 1845 (Gastropoda Muricidae). Journal of Conchology 29: 79–80.
PAIN T. 1976d The genus Neptunea in Britain. Bulletin Ipswich Geological Group No. 18: 9–11.
PAIN T. 1976e The Muricinae of the West African Marine Province. Newsletter of British Shell Collectors Club No 24: 17, 23 figs.
PAIN T. 1977a Review of G.E. Rodwin & A. D'Attiilio, ‘Murex shells of the World’ Journal of Conchology 29: 224.
PAIN T. 1977b Mollusca not Charopidae in La faune terrestre de l'île de Sainte-Hélène part 4. Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale Série in 8º Sciences Zoologiques 220: 534–575, pl. 9, 10 (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1977c On the occurrence of Colus ventricosus (Gray 1839), a prosobranch Mollusc. Bulletin Geological Society of Norfolk 29: 56–57.
PAIN T. 1977d The genus Neptunea Roeding, 1798 in Western Europe (Prosobranchia – Buccinacea. La Conchiglia 9 (101): 9–14, figs.
PAIN T. 1978a On the status of Potomya J. de C. Sowerby 1835 (Bivalvia: Myoida). Journal of Conchology 29: 301–303 (with N. Edwards).
PAIN T. 1978b A revision of the genus Revoilia Bourguignat 1881 (Prosobranchia: Pomatiidae). Journal of Conchology 29: 351–364 pls. 8–9 (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1978c The genus Colus Roeding, 1798 in western Europe (Prosobranchia – Buccinoidea. La Conchiglia 10 (114–115): 3–7, figs. 1–13.
PAIN T. 1978d How rare is Murex barclayi Reeve? Newsletter of British Shell Collectors Club No 32: 5 (1978).
PAIN T. 1979a Siphonorbis Mörch, 1869: a deep water genus from the North Atlantic (Buccinidae – Prosobranchia). La Conchiglia 11 (118–119): 6–7, figs.
PAIN T. 1979b Siphonorbis ebur (Mörch) (Buccinidae) and its occurrence in British waters. Newsletter of British Shell Collectors Club No 37: 9–10, figs (1979).
PAIN T. 1979c The genus Buccinum Linné, 1758 in western Europe (Prosobranchia – Buccinnoidea) Part 1: from the British seas to the Mediterranean. La Conchiglia 11 (126—127): 15–18, figs.
PAIN T. 1979d Review of Wagner & Abbott's ‘Standard Catalogue of shells supplement 1 ’. Conchologists' Newsletter 68: 130–131.
PAIN T. 1980a The Buccinids from European seas La Conchiglia 12 (138–139): 16–18, figs.
PAIN T. 1980b More about Achatina. Hawaiian Shell News 28 (10): 7.
PAIN T. 1981a Review of R. Houart ‘Révision des Trophoninae d'Europe’ Conchologists' Newsletter 77: 319.
PAIN T. 1981b Achatina (Lissachatina) mulanjensis a new species from Malawi (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata). Revue de Zoologie Africaine 95: 954–958, t. 6 (with T.E. Crowley).
PAIN T. 1981c Meet the Strophocheilidae. Hawaiian Shell News 29 (8): 1, 6, figs.
PAIN T. 1981d The genus Vitularia Swainson, 1840 (Prosobranchia – Muricidae). La Conchiglia 13 (142–143): 8–9, figs.
PAIN T. 1981e Troschelia berniciensis (King, 1876) (Fasciolariidae – Fusininae). La Conchiglia 13 (148–149): 3–4, figs.
PAIN T. 1981f The genus Purpurellus Jousseaume, 1880 (Gastropoda: Muricidae). La Conchiglia 13 (148–149): 4–5, figs.
PAIN T. 1982a On the occurrence of Colus ventricosus Gray 1839 a prosobranch mollusc reprinted Conchologists' Newsletter 80: 369.
PAIN T. 1982b The genus Buccinum Linn. 1758 in western Europe (Prosobranchia: Buccinidae). Part 2: European arctic species. La Conchiglia 14 (158–159): 14–18 figs.
PAIN T. 1982c Colus solidus Sowerby, 1880 (Prosobranchia: Buccinidae). A little known N. Atlantic species. La Conchiglia 14 (160–161): 3 figs.
PAIN T. 1982d On the designation of a neotype for Chicoreus (Chicoreus) torrefactus (Sowerby Jr. 1841) and a description of a new species Chicoreus (Chicoreus) kilburni sp. nov. (Gastropoda: Muricidae). Informations de la Société Belge de Malacologie 10: 51–56, figs (with R. Houart).
PAIN T. 1983a Marine species from a freshwater lake? Newsletter of British Shell Collectors Club 14 (2): 17–18 figs.
PAIN T. 1983b Is Bursa elegans Sowerby 1841 a good species? Newsletter of the British Shell Collectors 14 (2): 30, fig. (with A.P.H. Oliver).
PAIN T. 1983c The Chicoreus (Chicoreus) torrefactus complex Part 1. La Conchiglia 15 (168–169): 16–19, figs.
PAIN T. 1983d The Chicoreus (Chicoreus) torrefactus complex Part 2. La Conchiglia 15 (170–171): 3–6, figs (with R. Houart)
PAIN T. 1983e Marine shells from an African lake. Hawaiian Shell News 31 (1): 1, 4, figs.
PAIN T. 1983f Is this the most ponderous land snail? Hawaiian Shell News 31 (10): 3, fig.
PAIN T. 1984a Arthur Peter Hoblyn Oliver (1918-1984) Journal of Conchology 31: 348.
PAIN T. 1984b Placostylus senilis (Gassies, 1869). Is this the worlds most ponderous landshell? Newsletter of British Shell Collectors Club 14 (4) No. 56: 59.
PAIN T. 1984c A.P.H. Oliver (1918–1984) Pallidula 15 (4) No 60: 58 (1984).
PAIN T. 1984d The genus Pyrolofusus Mörch, 1869 (Prosobranchia: Buccinidae). La Conchiglia 16 (178–179): 6–7, figs.
PAIN T. 1984e An unusual form of southern Iceland Neptunea despecta fornicata (Fabricius, 1780) La Conchiglia 16 (180–181): 19, figs (with A. Kermarrec-Labisse).
PAIN T. 1984f In memoria [A.P.H. Oliver] La Conchiglia 16 (184–185): 30.
PAIN T. 1985a The genus Japelion Dall, 1916 (Prosobranchia: Buccinidae) La Conchiglia 17 (194–195): 24–27, figs.
PAIN T. 1985b The buckie Pallidula No 1 (61) (sic): 6–7.
PAIN T. 1986 Linnaeus' Neptunea, (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 88: 291—306, 6 figs (with C.M. Nelson).
PAIN T. 1987a The genus Clinopegma Grant & Gala, 1931. La Conchiglia 19 (222–223): 3, figs.
PAIN T. 1987b Corrections to the first printing of Abbott & Dance, ‘Compendium of Seashells’ 1982 Family Bursidae. Pallidula 18 (3): 37.
PAIN T. 1987c The saga of the turban star shell Megastraea turbanica (Dall). Pallidula 18 (2): 19–21.
PAIN T. 1988 A new look at Echinophoria Sacco, 1890. La Conchiglia (236–237): 19 figs.
PAIN T. 1989a Rangia cuneata, the clam they built a town on. Pallidula 19 (4): 62–63.
PAIN T. 1989b Cassis nana and thompsoni: range extensions Pallidula 19 (4): 73.
PAIN T. 1990a Cassis bituberculosa v. Mts. 1901 a species of Echinophoria Sacco, 1890. La Conchiglia 22 (250–252): 6–7, fig. (with G.H.J. Cox).
PAIN T. 1990b Ceratostoma coreanicum (A. Adams, 1854) a synonym of C. burnetti Adams & Reeve 1849. La Conchiglia 22 (256): 22, figs.
PAIN T. 1990c The saga of the ‘blubber-lipped bulimus’ Pallidula 20 (2): 21.
PAIN T. 1991 Pleurotomaria: 225 million years of perseverance? Pallidula 21 (2): 7—10.
PAIN T. 1992a The genus Megastraea McLean, 1970 (Archaegastropoda: Turbinidae). La Conchiglia 23 (263): 4, 4 figs.
PAIN T. 1992b Gordon Osbom F.L.S., 1913-1991. Pallidula 22 (1): 5.
PAIN T. 1992c A brief look at ammonites. Pallidula 22 (1): 16-19.
PAIN T. 1993 Review of I. Bogdanov and B. Sirenko ‘Seashells of Russia in colour’ Pallidula 23 (2): 26–27.
PAIN T. 1994 The giant creeper Campanile symbolicum Iredale a relict from Australian waters. Pallidula 24 (1): 18–20.
PAIN T. 1995 A living fossil from the southwest Pacific Gourmya gourmyi (Crosse). Pallidula 25 (1): 18–20.
PAIN T. 1996a Neotrigonia, a sole survivor! Pallidula 26 (1): 22–23.
PAIN T. 1996b The repetitive shell name once again. Pallidula 26 (1): 25.
PAIN T. 1997 The killer sea snail Conus geographus Linnaeus, 1758. Pallidula 27 (1): 17–18.
PAIN T. 1998 Our common whelk Buccinum undatum Linné, 1758 Pallidula 28 (1): 6–7.
PAIN T. 2000 Terence Eldon Crowley 1915–1999: obituary, bibliography and new molluscan names. Journal of Conchology 37: 93–97 (with C. Pain).


New Taxa

(Figure numbers in bold refer to the photographs on pages 190 and 191 of Journal of Conchology 38)

Achatina bandeirana arenaria Crowley & Pain 1961h: 139, fig. 1. Holotype: Congo Republic (Brazzaville), Pointe Noire, Dartevelle, MRAC 185116 (fig. 19) (one paratype MRAC 185104; one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00098).

Achatina bandeirana mayumbensis Crowley & Pain 1961h: 141, fig. 2. Holotype: Zaire, Mayumbe, Mt. Madiakoko, Kisala Ngoma, Dartevelle, MRAC 283366 (fig. 17) (one paratype MRAC 531968; one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00099).

Achatina (Lissachatina) calcicola Crowley & Pain 1961h: 144, fig. 4. Holotype: Zaire Bas-Congo, Inkisi, Sanda, Bequaert, MRAC 142968.

Achatina (Pintoa) lomaniensis Crowley & Pain 1961h: 147, fig. 5. Holotype: Zaire, Lomami, Kasai, Lutz, MRAC 97115 (two paratypes MRAC 277907; one paratype NMW.Z.1981 .118.00161).

Achatina (Lissachatina) mulanjensis Crowley & Pain 1981b: 954, t. 6/1–4. Holotype: Malawi, Mulanje Mt., W.N. Gray, MRAC 800985 (fig. 21) (one paratype MRAC 800986; one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00105; one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00235).

Achatina schweinfurthi simularis Crowley & Pain 1961h: 142, fig. 3. Holotype: Zaire, Buta, Province Orientale, Uele District, Hutsebaut, MRAC 302304 (one paratype MRAC 302299)

Archachatina (Tholachatina) altitudinaria Crowley & Pain 1961h: 151, fig. 8. Holotype: Zaire, Kivu, Fizi, 2800 m, Hautmann, MRAC 277868 (fig. 13) (one paratype MRAC 277869; one paratype MRAC 277881; one paratype MRAC 277893; two paratypes NMW.Z.1981.118.00l63 one paratype MCZ 235245).

Archachatina (Tholachatina) bequaerti Crowley & Pain 1961h: 148, fig. 6. Holotype: Malawi, Nyika Plateau, 2250 m, Loveridge, MCZ 235271 (fig. 14) (two paratypes MCZ232272; one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00162).

Archachatina (Tholachatina)insularis Crowley & Pain 1961h: 149, fig. 7. Holotype: Zaire, Bas-Congo, Matadi, island in mouth of R. Congo, Dartevelle, MRAC 114917 (two paratypes NMW.Z.1981 .118.00104; three paratypes NMW.Z.1981.118.00236; one paratype MCZ 235278; one paratype MCZ 235247, one paratype MMUM).

Burtoa nilotica benoiti Crowley & Pain 1959d: 22, t. 2, fig. 8. Holotype: Zaire, Rutshuru, J. ghesquiére, MRAC 101001 (fig. 12) (three paratypes MRAC 101002; four paratypes MRAC 101005; four paratypes MRAC 101009; one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00170; one paratype LEEDM.C.1993.5.15366).

Burtoa nilotica congoensis Crowley & Pain 1959d: 26, t. 2. fig. 9. Holotype: Zaire, Haut Lomani, between Sampwe and Kikondja, Tonneau, MRAC 5072 (fig. 16) (one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00169; one paratype (?) LEEDM.C.1993.5.15356 [Crowley designated this as a paratype but it is not from the type localityl).

Burtoa nilotica verdcourti Crowley & Pain 1959d: 12, t. 1, figs 1–2. Holotype: Kenya, Kavirondo, Rusinga site 3, L.S.B. Leakey 572/56, BMNH (Four paratypes, BMNH).

Chicoreus (Chicoreus) kilburni Houart & Pain 1982d: 51, figs. Holotype: S. Africa, Natal, Durban Bay? Kilburn, IRSN 26429/385.

Doryssa geijskesi Pain 1956d: 102, figs l0a–d. Holotype: Surinam, Coppename R., Makambo, Geijskes, RMNH (paratypes in Coll. Geijskes and Pain – specimens can currently not be located).

Grandidieria bloomeri Woodward in Crowley, Pain & Woodward 1964g: t. 7, figs. 41,42. Holotype: Malawi, Lake Malawi (Nyasa), Nkata Bay, Eccles Point, Eccles, MRAC 793223 (two paratypes MRAC 793222).

Lanistes (Meladomus) connollyi Pain 1954a: 2, figs. 1, 2. Holotype: Zimbabwe, Victoria Falls, Connolly, MCZ 173421 (three paratypes NMW.Z.1981.118.00112; two paratvpes NMW.Z.1981.118.00233; one paratype MRAC 793978; one cited specimen NMW.Z.1981.118.00111).

Lanistes kobelti Pain 1954a: 31: 1, figs. 3, 4. Holotype: probably West Africa, MCZ 173419 (one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00115).

Lanistes (Meladomus) ovum mweruensis Pain 1954a: 3, fig. 5–7. Holotype: Zaire, Lake Moero (Mweru), Kilwa, Van den Berghe, MCZ 109842 (six paratypes NMW.Z.1981.118.00219; one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00234; two paratypes MRAC 554469).

Limicolaria leakeyi Crowley & Pain 1963c: 15, figs. 24-26. Holotype: Kenya, Songhor, Miocene, L. Leakey and colleagues 648/49, BMNH (one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00238; one paratype LEEDM.C.1993.5.18488). (Pickford has demonstrated this is an Achatina).

Limicolariopsis cylindrica Crowley & Pain 1961g: 16, t. 1, figs. 6, 7. Holotype: Kenya, Northern Frontier District, Malka Murri, J.G. Williams, MRAC 793488 (fig. 5) (one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00153 (the material was originally loaned from NMK and Pain (2000) states the type is there although it must already have been sent to MRAC in error) as ‘cylindricus’).

Limicolariopsis elgonensis Crowley & Pain 1961g: 29, t. 3, fig. 3. Holotype: Kenya, E. Mt. Elgon, Endebess, Irwin, NMK (two paratypes NMW.Z.1981.118.00152; one paratype MRAC 617707; one paratype MRAC 617712; one paratype MRAC 617718; one paratype MRAC 617728; one paratype MRAC 617733).

Limicolariopsis ellisi Crowley & Pain 1964e: 191, figs. 5, 6. Holotype: Ethiopia, Gore, Kaffa, Chojnacki, MRAC 608889 (fig. 20) (on p. 192 fig. 6 is wrongly referred to L. obtusa).

Limicolariopsis laevis Crowley & Pain 1961g: 28, t. 3, figs. 1, 2. Holotype: Kenya, Mt. Kenya, Thiba R., H. Copley, NMK No. 955 (one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00154).

Limicolariopsis verdcourti Crowley & Pain 1961g: 26, t. 2. fig. 9, text fig. Holotype: Kenya, W. Mt. Kenya, Naromoru R., 2910 m, M. Coe, NMK.

Neothauma ecclesi Crowley, Pain & Woodward, 1964g: 19, t. 2, figs. 8–10. Holotype: Malawi, Lake Malawi (Nyasa), Chipoka, Eccles, MRAC 793221 (fig. 1) (Mandahl-Barth transferred this to Bellamya).

Nyassunio ecclesi Woodward in Crowley, Pain & Woodward 1964g: 52, t. 6, figs. 39, 40. Holotype: Malawi, Lake Malawi (Nyasa), Chembe, Eccles, MRAC 793224 (fig. 8) (three [non-matching valves] paratypes NMW.Z.1981.118.00101).

Pila (Pomacea) aldersoni Pain 1946a: 180, t. 6, figs. 1, 2. Holotype: Ecuador, about 272 km SE. of Quito, near Santa Barbara, Pain, BMNH 1946.6.24.25 (one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00091; one paratype NMW.1955.158.02411).

Pila ovata dartevellei Pain 1961f: 17, fig. Holotype: Zaire, Lumbumbashi (Elizabethville) Ercoliers, MRAC 36662 (fig. 5) (paratype cited as being in coll. Pain).

Pila (Pomacea) hollingsworthi Pain 1946a: 180, t. 6, figs. 3–5. Holotype: Colombia, near Bogota, Pain, BMNH 1946.6.24.24 (one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00232).

Placostylus fibratus kumacensis Pain 1958a: 276, t. 8. Holotype: New Caledonia, above Kumac on NW. coast, Tiebagi Mts., Humble, NMW.Z.1981.118.00220 (fig. 4).

Placostylus fibratus mosesi Pain 1955: 14, fig. 4. Holotype: New Caledonia, near Goro, C.H. Humble, NMW.Z.1981.118.00221 (fig. 10).

Placostylus fibratus powelli Pain 1955: 12, fig. 2. Holotype: New Caledonia, Baie du Sud, C.H. Humble, NMW.Z.1981.118.00224 (fig. 7) (one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00222).

Placostylus scarabus verdis Pain 1955: 14, fig. 5. Holotype: New Caledonia, N. coast near St. Vincent, C.H. Humble, NMW.Z.1981.118.00223 (fig. 6).

Placostylus strattoni Pain 1955: 18, fig. 9. Holotype: New Caledonia, without definite locality or collector, in coll. Stratton, MMUM (see Journal of Conchology 27: 428 (1972) (fig. 9).

Pleiodon waterstoni Pain & Woodward 1964f: 9, t. 2, figs. 1–3. Holotype: locality (? Senegal) and collector unknown. Specimen in A.E. Salisbury collection NMSZ 1961.61.32801 (fig. 11) (one paratype NMSZ 1961.61.32802).

Pomacea camena Pain 1949c 258, t. 13, figs. 5, 6. Holotype: Venezuela, near Lagunella, 800 m, Pain, BMNH 1946 10.2.3 (given as 10.2.4 paratype in BMNH accession book) (two paratypes NMW.Z. 1981.118.00116; one paratype NMW.1955.158.02412).

Pomacea cumingi urabaensis Pain 1956a: 75, text fig. Holotype: Colombia, N. Antioquia, Golfo de Uraba, Brouwer,in original publication cited as T. Pain collection (three paratypes NMW.Z.1981.118.00114).

Pomacea falconensis Pain & Arias 1958c: 6 t. i, ii. Holotype: Venezuela, Falcón State 5km. SW. of Chichiriviche, A. Musso & G. Yépez, Mus. Hist. Nat. La Salle Cat. Mol. No. 4000; (paratypes BMNH 19592; four paratypes NMW.Z.1981.118.00116; three paratypes NMW.Z.1981 .118.00230).

Pomacea (Limnopomus) meridaensis Pain 1950b: 109. Holotype: Venezuela, Merida, collector's name not given, formerly in Alderson coll. in Lady Iliffe collection (figure by Alderson 1925, t. 11, fig. 7) now at NMW.Z.1981.118.00109 (fig. 2) (three paratypes NMW.Z.1981.118.00110, one paratype MMUM EE.3638).

Pomacea nais Pain 1949c: 257, t. 13, figs 3, 4. Holotype: Brazil, near Obidos, small stream from South bank of R. Amazon, Pain, BMNH 1946.2.3.1 (one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00093).

Pomacea vickeryi Pain 1949c: 257, t. 13, figs. 1, 2. Holotype: Argentina, La Plata, near Buenos Aires, Pain, BMNH 1946.10.2.3

Pomacea zischkai Blume & Pain 1952b: 267, t. 7. Holotype: Bolivia, Chapara region, 400m, Zischka, Blume collection (two paratypes NMW.Z.1981.118.00117).

Pseudachatina connectens d’Aily forma colorata Pain & Paul 1967d: 35, t. 2, fig. 3. Holotype: possibly S. Cameroons, near Tiko, Likomba Plantation, in bananas, collector ? In original publication cited as T. Pain collection (one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00226; one paratype MRAC 793674).

Pseudachatina connectens d’Ailly forma plicata Pain & Paul 1967d: 37, t. 2, fig. 6. Holotype: S. Cameroons, Dibonga Sanaga Rime, (ex Preston) NMW.Z.1981.118.00225 (fig. 15).

Pseudachatina granulata Pain & Paul 1967d: 41, t. 2, fig. 5. Holotype: S. Cameroons, 11 km inland from Kribi, collector not known, BMNH 1937.12.30.3674 (ex Preston and Connolly).

Pseudachatina pulchra Pain & Paul 1967d: 42, t. 3, fig 1. Holotype: possibly W. Cameroons, near Tiko, Likomba Plantation, in bananas, in original publication cited as T. Pain collection (one paratype LEEDM.C.1993.5.18472).

Pseudachatina sodeni Kobelt forma elegantula Pain & Paul 1967: 30, t. 1, fig. 2. Holotype: Fernando Po, Santa Isabella, ?collector, BMNH 1904. 5.7.26 (two paratypes NMW.Z.1981.118.00151; two paratypes NMW.Z.1981.118.00227; one paratype LEEDM.C.1993.5.18470; one paratype MRAC 507) (BMNH accession book states ‘presented by the subscribers to the Fernando Po Exploration Fund namely Duke of Bedford, Walter Rothschild and Percy Sladen’) (specimen could not be found at BMNH).

Pseudachatina striata Pain & Paul 1967d: 58, t. 5, fig. 3. Holotype: S. Cameroon, near Efulens, collector not stated, BMNH 1904.12.13.15 (one paratype NMW.Z.1981.118.00228) BMNH accession book gives collector as G.L. Bates).

Pseudachatina wrighti (G.B. Sow. sen.) forma minor Pain & Paul 1967d: 48, t. 4, fig. 2. Holotype: Nigeria, Old Calabar, collector not stated, NMW.Z.1981.118.00149 (fig.18) (two paratypes NMW.Z.1981.118.00229; one paratype LEEDM.C.1993.5.18473; one paratype MRAC 503)

Saulea lithoides Pain & Beatty 1964h: 2, t. 2/A, B, C. Holotype: Kenya, Kirimon Miocene deposits, Patterson, MCZ 28018.

Museum abbreviations:
BMNH = Natural History Museum, London, England
IRSN = Institute Royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Belgium
LEEDM.C. = Leeds Museum Resource Centre, Leeds, England
MCZ = Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, USA
MMUM = Manchester Museum, University of Manchester
MRAC = Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium
NMK = National Museum of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
NMSZ = National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland
NMW = National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, Wales pre 1970
NMW.Z.= National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, Wales post 1970
RMNH = Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, The Netherlands