Franz Ludwig Stuhlmann - 1863-1928 - Collectors in East Africa - 13.

By Bernard Verdcourt

Extracted from The Conchologists’ Newsletter,
(Part 1.) No.106, pp. 113–117 published September 1988;
(Part 2.) No.109, pp.181–187 published June 1989;
(Part 3.) No. 110, pp. 211–219 published September 1989

In previous biographical notes I have dealt with collectors who in reality collected but little, but the present account deals with one of the most important biological collectors to visit Africa who made large collections of plants and animals. He was also an important man in the German Colonial Service and more akin to Sir John Kirk than anyone else dealt with so far. Stuhlmann’s mollusc collections were in fact one of the mainstays of E. von Martens’ great work ‘Beschalte Weichethiere Deutsch-Ost-Africas’. A great many East African plants and animals bear the specific epithet stuhlmannii.

Franz Ludwig Stuhlmann was of an old Hamburg family and born in that city on 29 October 1863, his father being the architect Rudolph Stuhlmann and his mother Emilie (née Krämer) having close connections with the House of Hansing. He attended a local grammar school (Realgymnasium des Johanneums) where he laid the foundations of his later profound and extensive scientific erudition; later he studied at Tübingen and Freiburg choosing Natural Science. Natural history had dominated his interests at an early date and its further study became one of the main aims of his life. His doctoral thesis at Freiburg (1886) concerned the development of arthropod eggs (Ber. d. Natf. Ges. Freiburg 1, 1886). He also studied at the Zoological Institut of the University of Kiel producing a work ‘Zur Kenntnis des Ovariums der Aalmutter’ (Abhandl. Geb. Naturwiss. Hamb. vol. 10 [1887]). The Aalmutter is the viviparous blenny. After a short stint as a demonstrator at the Zoological Institut in Würzberg he began his travels at the age of 25; his mother’s relationship with the Hansing family proved invaluable in this respect.

In 1888 he left for Africa in one of the ships of their line, presumably travelling virtually free. He visited Alexandria and Cairo in March where he met his illustrious compatriot George Schweinfurth and formed a lasting friendship. Stuhlmann finally arrived in Zanzibar on 17 April and stayed with Justus Strandes, the Hansing representative there, with whom he made friends. The Hansings had had business interests in Zanzibar since 1850 or so. It may well have been German business interests in Zanzibar which warned Sir John Kirk of Germany’s growing desire to colonize the mainland and prompted him to continually needle the British Government to forestall it. They, however, were so busy appeasing Bismarck that Sir John was not re-appointed to Zanzibar and was not there when Stuhlmann arrived. Kirk went on leave to England in July 1886 shortly after being awarded a G.C.M.G. as a sop. There is little doubt that the two would have been friends joined by natural history interests.

This voyage to Africa was decisive for Stuhlmann’s whole life; as was the case with so many others, Africa immediately fascinated him and became the centre of his life. This first voyage was basically a zoological collecting trip for the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Until the end of 1888 he was collecting at various localities on Zanzibar and in January 1889 went down the coast to Mozambique, certainly on 9–13 January 1889 he was in Quelimane but back in Zanzibar on 6 and 7 of February and again in Quelimane on the 11th.; again in Zanzibar at the beginning of March and in Quelimane on 10–16 March, May and June in Zanzibar, mid-July in Quelimane and August to October in Zanzibar. He was certainly in Pangani in November 1889 and January 1890 and is known to have collected at Bagamoyo in February 1889 and at Dar es Salaam in 1888. As J. Gillett states (MS itinerary at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew) ‘It seems certain he did visit Quelimane in Mozambique and yet at certain periods plants said to be from Quelimane are dated so close to others from Zanzibar that it seems possible either that there is another Quelimane on Zanzibar Island, or that he was incorporating in his collections specimens sent to him by some unnamed correspondent in Quelimane, Mozambique’. Nevertheless, although transport on land at this time was so slow, by sea it was much faster and Zanzibar to Quelimane might be done in four days by a boat capable of 10 knots.

Stuhlmann rapidly became a leader in colonial natural history work and its practical applications. These were the years of developing colonial policies in East Africa under Karl Peters, Hermann von Wissmann and Emin Pascha (Pasha in English). The quiet scientific researches which Stuhlmann wished to pursue were soon interrupted. He joined the German Protectorate Force (deutschen Schutztruppe) as a reserve officer under von Wissmann and became a Lieutenant. This force had been set up after the Arab revolt in 1888. After he had recovered from a wound (severe according to Uhlig) received in January 1890 in a small engagement at Lembula, he started in April 1890, with Emin Pasha* as leader, on his first great journey into the interior of Africa which lasted over two years. In December 1889 Emin Pasha had been rescued by Stanley and was in Bagamoyo recovering from an accident. Emin had been ordered by the German authorities to explore the hinterland, particularly the Great Lakes area to the north-west; the 49-year-old leader made a great impression on Stuhlmann who leapt at the chance to join him. Even at that comparatively late date the difficulties of such a journey into almost unknown regions are difficult to imagine.

They left Bagamoyo on 26 April and went** via Morogoro, Kilosa (27 May), Mpwapwa (22 June), Tabora (28 August and by which time he had collected over 500 plants), Selaue about 30 km south of southern tip of Lake Victoria (20 September) arriving in Bukoba on 16 November. Whilst in Bukoba he made a trip by boat across Lake Victoria to the Sesse (Sese) Islands and Uganda (6 December 1890 – 25 January 1891). The expedition continued on through Karagwe (as did Speke and Grant) and was at Lake Albert Edward on the Zaire side on 13 May. Between 8 and 15 June Stuhlmann made an ascent of Ruwenzori, then they continued on via the Semliki R. to the southern end of Lake Albert, thence to the Ituri River (15–20 September). The end of November 1891 was spent around Lake Albert. Next month smallpox broke out in the camp and Emin asked Stuhlmann to return with the still healthy part of the party to Bukoba. Stuhlmann was not anxious to do this but Emin made it a military order which could not be refused, so on the 10th. he left Emin who continued on further into the NE. Congo and due to insufficient equipment met a tragic end, being killed by slavers. Stuhlmann arrived back in Bukoba on 15 February and had a troublesome journey back to the coast, arriving there on 12 July 1892. During this expedition he had collected 4362 plants which made him by far the most prolific collector so far. Unfortunately his plant material was often not duplicated and much of the original collection was destroyed at Berlin—Dahlem during World War II. The mollusca are fortunately still extant and I examined them all during a visit to the Zoological Museum of the Humboldt University in East Berlin in 1959. That they are still in good order is thanks to the heroic efforts of Prof. Siegfried Jaeckel who carried the immense collections down to the basement of the Museum by himself during the war; all would have been destroyed had he not done so, save for a few duplicates which found their way into other museums, e.g. British Museum (Nat. Hist.). Apart from being a botanist and zoologist during the expedition Stuhlmann was also a linguist and ethnologist; but above all he laid the foundation for his later very comprehensive cartographic researches since he was to become more and more involved with geography and official mapping.

* A famous figure on the African scene who hopefully will be the subject of another article in this series (spelt Pascha in German).
** Gillett’s itinerary worked out from Stuhlmann’s own book has been augmented and is given as an appendix with both old and new spellings.

The physical and mental exertions of the journey had sapped his strength and hardly had he returned to the coast when he was ill for several weeks with black-water fever and only saved by a blood-transfusion from his faithful servant Kombo, a Comoro Islander (one wonders about blood groups about which presumably nothing was known).

Later the expedition was immortalised in one of the classic African travel books ‘Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika. 1893’ in which, as one obituary writer has it, he confines himself to sober and correct truth (nüchterne und sachliche Wahrhaftigkeit) a characteristic from which he never deviated throughout his life; he never embroidered anything and wrote in a simple factual style. Reading the book one is impressed with the breadth of his knowledge, manifold interests and great powers of observation. Little wonder then, he was to become the scientific backbone of the German colonial administration. The official map of Deutsch Ost-Afrika owes a very great deal to Stuhlmann’s careful observations during the expedition.

Stuhlmann was in hospital for 7 weeks before he was fit enough to go home on leave to Germany. During this time his collector Mabruk who had previously worked for J. M. Hildebrandt (see no. 10 in this series) and for G. A. Fischer (not yet dealt with (now completed, see no. 17 of this series [Ed.])) was killed in the streets of Dar es Salaam from the kick of a ‘tame’ ostrich. On 20th. Oct. 1892 he reached home and whilst in Germany he published several works. He came back as a colonial offical based on Dar es Salaam, his duties enlarged to take in land registry and geodesy, the cultivation methods of the local people, agricultural policy and map-making. He had to organise the surveys on which the 1:300,000 series of maps was based and in the course of this work he surveyed the Uluguru Mts. and adjacent areas making extremely valuable biological collections (see appendix for itinerary). Some 3000 plants were collected between January and December 1894. Between 3 and 19 February 1895 he was on a survey expedition at the mouth of the Rovuma R., the boundary between German and Portuguese territories.

After this Stuhlmann became an increasingly senior official and was twice acting governor, if not more often, certainly when Graf Von Götzen took his first home leave. His identity with his work is well shown in his published economic debates in Deutsch Ost-Afrika ‘Die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung Deutsch-0stafrikas’ (Verh. der Abt. Berlin-Charl. der D.K.G. 1897/98). From February until June 1901 he made a journey to India and the Dutch East Indies to study the organisation of agricultural research, much of which was written up in reports in ‘Der Tropenpflanzer’ between 1901 and 1903. In 1903 he became Director of the research station at Amani [Biologisch-Landwirtschaftlichen Institutes Amani] which engaged in basic agricultural research; it had in fact been founded on his recommendation, partly as a result of his Indian study tour. The institute remained very active until the First World War and was in fact looked after until 1920 by Prof. A. Zimmermann.

Here it will be interesting to digress. Germany left the development of her East African Protectorate to great corporations (we of course did much the same) and the East Usambara Mountains in which Amani was situated was given to the Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft. The D.0.A.G. handed some of the territory to subsidiaries, some to the Royal House – the Prinz Albrecht family – and a small area of 741 acres was set aside for scientific research. Prof. A. Zimmermann, a botanist of world renown and great experience in Java, was appointed Deputy Director in September 1902; it was in the middle of the rainy season when he walked from Mnyusi station on the Usambara Railway wading up to his waist across mountain streams and he must have wondered on his arrival what could possibly be made of an area of primary rain forest. Actually the estate extended from the Sigi valley at 1300 ft to the summit of Bomole at 3600 ft and eventually this range of climate allowed some 4000 different useful plants to be grown but the land was all on slopes. It was clear the D.0.A.G. had off-loaded what it considered the most difficult terrain on the scientists, more as a salve to conscience than anything else. Nevertheless, under skilled guidance, hundreds of Wanyamwezi, believed to be the best workers, cleared the forest, blasted stone from the rivers for building, established plantations and even pastures. The resulting station became one of the best in the world with a magnificent library and laboratories for chemistry, botany and entomology etc.. Between 1920 and 1928 it was merely looked after by a caretaker whilst the vacillating British made up their minds. With the all too frequent brainlessness which characterises British administration in any scientific matters, moves were actually made to close the institute. In 1927, partly due to Lt. Col. Sir David Prain*, a far-sighted and much underrated Director of Kew, Amani was taken over by the British and became the major research station of the tropics which I am certain would have pleased Stuhlmann had he still been alive. The East African Agricultural Research Station, later Institute, moved to Muguga near Nairobi, Kenya in the early 1950s and became the East African Agriculture and Forestry Research Organisation**. Still later on after the sad break—up of the East African Community it was taken over by the Kenya Agricultural Department. The old Amani Herbarium, later the East African Herbarium (of which I was Director between 1958 and 1964) became part of the Kenya National Museum in 1984 (it had absorbed the botanical collections of that Museum (then the Coryndon Memorial Museum) in late 1950). That it is now one of Africa’s largest would surely have delighted its original Director.

* Stuhlmann met Prain who was Director of the Calcutta Botanic Garden when Stuhlmann made his scientific study trip to India and the East Indies.
** I worked for E.A.A.F.R.O. between 1949 and 1964 spending almost my first year at Amani, then still surrounded by superb rain forest and many reminders of its German past including a black post master who spoke fluent German.

Under Stuhlmann’s directorship the Amani Institut developed into a magnificent and world-famous centre for tropical agricultural research. The extensive plantations were suitable for trying out a vast range of crops and exotic trees. Most of them were still in good order when the station at Amani was handed over to the Institute for Insect-Borne Diseases when E.A.A.F.R.O. finally left. They had survived the 1920–1928 caretaker period. From the 1950s maintenance came under the Forestry Department and international interest is now at long last being shown. Stuhlmann wrote numerous papers during his time at Amani on geography, botany and colonial economics and edited the house journal ‘Der Pflanzer’; during his last year there he gathered materials for what is probably his best-known and still invaluable work, volume X in the superb Deutsch-Ost-Africa series ‘Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte von Ostafrika. 907 pp. Berlin, 1909’. During this last year his first work on Tsetse-flies also appeared. There is no doubt that he had happy years in East Africa. With great regret in 1908 he had to give up all his activities in East Africa due to a deterioration in his health, the result of 20 years in the tropics. Back in Hamburg the municipality made him general secretary of the Central Office of the newly founded Colonial Institut and his aim was to process information for colonial instruction, essentially different from his work in East Africa and removing him from the scientific studies so close to his heart. Still, characteristically, he immersed himself completely in his new work and evaluated the German and foreign daily press for all he considered of value and established the basis of the Hamburgischen Welt-Wirstschafts-Archivs, the director of which he later became and the development of which occupied the last years of his life.

In 1911 and 1913 he visited Algeria and Tunisia and produced reports in the Abh. des Hamburg. Kolon. Inst.; also a report concerning Britain and Turkey in Arabia. One can imagine how deeply he felt the loss of Germany’s colonies after the war, particularly Deutsch Ost-Afrika (later Tanganyika Territory, now Tanzania). Africa remained his first interest and he continued to publish about it; his last scientific work led him back to his first days there. He had preserved and brought back to Hamburg the diaries of the murdered Emin which he now edited; 5 of 6 volumes planned were published. It is interesting to compare Stuhlmann’s great respect for Emin (‘like a son for his father’) with the irritation Emin engendered in his ‘rescuer’ Stanley. Stanley had little time for natural history and was annoyed by Emin’s delays poking about under stones for molluscs and other specimens. I would much rather believe Stuhlmann’s account of Emin than Stanley’s. Alan Moorehead agrees and says ‘Emin’s certainly was the most intelligent brain in Central Africa since Burton’s time’ and Harry Johnston rated him highly.

One obituary refers to a period of problems brought about by a short joyless marriage which depressed him but he recovered completely after the divorce!

Stuhlmann was a man of great human kindness and not a severely strict disciplinarian, very modest and never idle (Raslos war er tätig), witty and humorous but not a lover of parties, a well-groomed slender charming man with slightly dreamy eyes, very sensitive and in many ways very reserved. He had a well-balanced but fatherly attitude towards native peoples. He was not really a politician nor an empire-builder but certainly filled with enthusiasm for German ways of thinking and working and a pioneer of German colonial activity at its best – a noble human being and eminent scientist. From his signature it looks as if his handwriting was even worse than mine!

On 29 October 1928 Stuhlmann attained his 65th year, thus reaching the age when all civil servants were expected to retire, but, having regard for his vigour and great talents, the Senate were asked to keep him in office, a request which was granted. At the September meeting of the Hamburg Geographic Society he spoke about Burgermeister Schtamms and was in excellent health but he soon became unwell. It seems that a few days before an impending operation necessitated by his illness he discussed with colleagues the future of his institute in case the operation did not go according to plan; he had a premonition of his death. The operation did not succeed and he died of cancer on 19 November 1928.

My thanks are due to my colleague Dr. Edmund Launert for translating the obituaries for me sufficiently slowly for me to scribble many notes which partly form the basis for the above account which is greatly expanded from part of my second Presidential Address given in 1972. I am also grateful to another colleague, Jan Gillett (who has also been a director of the East African Herbarium) for the use of his itinerary of Stuhlmann prepared from many sources.


List of molluscs described from material collected by Dr. F.L. Stuhlmann in Tanzania, Uganda and Zaire *


Extracted from The Conchologists’ Newsletter, No. 109, pp.181–187, published June 1989
* Although Stuhlmann collected a few molluscs in Mozambique (von Martens, 1897; Connolly, 1925) all were known species.

Inserted in the front of the copy of Beschalte Weichtiere in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) set of Deutsch-Ost-Afrika at 74 Dbq & fD, is a letter from von Martens to E. A. Smith which accompanied about 30 lots of specimens collected by Stuhlmann sent for Smith’s expert opinion. Some of these had been identified with Smith species and others were tentative new species. Smith has summarised his reply to von Martens on the letter, crossing out where the identifications are wrong and agreeing that some were also new to him. It follows that some of these specimens are paratypes but I have not had time to hunt for them all in the general collection, although some have come to light in the past (e.g. one of Helix butumbiana – see J. Conch. 31: 179 [1983]). Some of the specimens which Smith informed Martens were not correctly identified were later described as new and one can work out what they are from the localities given and genera used. One at least, von Martens finally published under a different name from that used in the letter – this is Subulina columellaris, finally published as bicolumellaris. I found this specimen and the original label had the bi added by Smith.

** All types are in the Zoological Museum of the Humboldt University, East Berlin with the exception of a few elsewhere. Where the word type is used the exact kind of type is not known as it is not always clear if there is more than one specimen and I failed to note this during my visit in 1959.
Achatina stuhlmanni von Mts., 1892.    Zaire, W. of Upper Ituri R. (type**).
Ancylus stuhlmanni von Mts., 1897.    Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Bussisi (type).
Burnupia stuhlmanni (von Mts.)
Ampullaria erythrostoma Reeve var. stuhlmanni von Mts., 1897.    Zaire, SW. Kassenje (syntypes).
Pila ovata (Ol.)
Ampullaria gordoni Smith var.bukobae von Mts., 1887.    Tanzania, Bukoba (syntypes).
Pila ovata (Ol.) (mentioned from three sites – Ufer des See, eine Tumpel und Kleine Bach).
Ampullaria ovata (Ol.) var. deckeni von Mts., 1897.    Zanzibar, Muera Brücke & Tanzania, Bagomoyo, Mengwa-Teich (also Pangani [Schmidt] and unlocalised [von der Decken] syntypes).
Pila ovata (Ol.) (adjusta Reeve form).
Ampullaria ovata (Ol.) var. emini von Mts., 1897.    Zaire, Lake Albert Edward, Rumande. Tanzania, Karagwe, Kagera R. at Kayonsa and Lake Victoria, Nyemirmbe (Namirembe) (also ? Kenya, Mhugu (Neumann) (syntypes). Pilsbry & Bequaert give the type locality as Nyemirmbe which can be accepted as a choice.
Pila ovata (Ol.) (gordoni [Smith] form).
Atoxon aurantiacum Simroth, 1895.    ? Tanzania, W. Mpororo Mts., SE.near Migore (holotype) (Mpororo Mts. are on the Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda border.
Atoxon pallens Simroth.
Atoxon brunneum Simroth, 1895.    Zaire, Ruwenzori at Semliki Ferry (holotype)
Atoxon pallens Simroth
Atoxon flavum Simroth, 1897.    Zaire, W.of Lake Albert Edward, Kishakka (Katambaru) (syntypes)
Atoxon pallens Simroth
Atoxon lineatum Simroth, 1895.    Tanzania, S. Lake Victoria, Kome Islands (syntypes)
Atoxon hildebrandti Simroth
Atoxon martensi Simroth, 1910.    ‘Ostafrika’ (holotype)
Atoxon pallens Simroth, 1895.    Zaire, NW.of Lake Albert, Kirima) (syntypes)
Atoxon robustum Simroth, 1895.    Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Kome Islands (holotypes)
Atoxon hildebrandti Simroth
Atoxon taeniatum Simroth, 1895.    Zaire, Undussuma (syntypes)
Atoxon pallens Simroth
Atoxon variegatum Simroth, 1895.    Tanzania, Lake Voctoria, Kome Islands (holotype)
Atoxon pallens Simroth
Atrichotoxon punctatum Simroth, 1910.    ‘Ostafrika’ (holotypes)
Bithynia (Gabbia) puteana von Mts., 1897.    Zanzibar Island (syntypes)
? Gabbia puteana von Mts.
Buliminus retirugis von Mts., 1895a (as retivugis    Zaire, Ruwenzori (Runssoro), W. slope of Butagu Valley in bamboo forest at 2500 m. (holotype)
Cerastua trapezoidea (von Mts.)
Buliminus stuhlmanni von Mts., 1895a     Zaire, Semliki Valley: Karevia at W. foot of Ruwenzori, 1175 m., Bukende, Buginda (Bugundi, Orani) and Ongenya. Uganda, Manyonyo (syntypes).
Pseudoglessula stuhlmanni von Mts. Pilsbury (1919) selected Karevia as the type locality. There should be a syntype in the BM.
Buliminus trapezoideus von Mts., 1892     Zaire, Ruwenzori (Runssoro), W. slope of Butagu Valley in bamboo forest at 2600 m. (holotype)
Cerastua trapezoidea (von Mts.).
Buliminus (Rhachis) trichrous von Mts., 1891     Tanzania, Usagara, Ukwere (Ukwera), Kissemo, Emin & Stuhlmann (type).
Rhachisti picturata (Morelet).
Buliminus ugandae von Mts., 1895.     Uganda, Monyonyo (Manyonyo) (holotype at Berlin, prartype at BM).
Conulinus ugandae (von Mts.).
Cyclophorus elatior von Mts., 1892.     Zaire, Migere in Butumbi (syntypes).
Maizania elatior (von Mts.).
Cyclophorus intermedius von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, between Ngesi and Mwutan-Nsige, W. of Issango-Itiri (no collector actually give). Uganda, Murchison-Bai, Mjongo (syntypes).
Maizania elatior (von Mts.).
Cyclophorus (Diptrops ?) papillaris von Mts., 1892.     Zaire, Migere in Butumbi (type).
Afroditropus papillaris (von Mts.).
Cyclostoma letourneuxi (Bgt.) var. stuhlmanni von Mts., 1897.     Tanzania, Usakami to Usagara, Mkatta-Bach (Emin & Stuhlmann) (Type).
Tropidophora letourneuxi stuhlmanni (von Mts.).
Ennea amicta var. brevior von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, Bundeko, E. of the Issango R. (syntypes).
Gulella pupa (Thiele). Thiele gives the locality as Butumbi but worked with the same material as von Martens, (see Pilsbury (1919: 228). Strictly speaking this should be called G. brevior but Thiele’s name is well known.
Ennea brevis Thiele, 1911.     Zaire, Migere in Butumbi (type).
Ennea curvilamella sensu von Mts. in part, non Smith. Gulella brevis (Thiele).
Ennea excavata von Mts., 1892.     Zaire, Butumbi (type).
Gulella excavata (von Mts.).
Ennea exogonia von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, W. slope of Butagu Valley, 2600 m. (type).
Gulella exogonia (von Mts.).
Ennea geminata von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, Butagu Valley, bamboo forest at 2600 m. Uganda, Manyonyo (syntypes).
Ptychotrema geminatum (von Mts.).
Ennea latula von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, Butumbi, Migere (type).
Gonaxis (‘Marconia’) latula (von Mts.).
Ennea limbata von Mts., 1892.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, W. slope of Butagu Valley, at 2600 m. (type).
Ptychotrema limbatum (von Mts.).
Ennea linguifera von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, Semliki Forest, Bukende and Ongenya (syntypes).
Gulella (Primigulella) linguifera (von Mts.).
Ennea ovalis Thiele, 1911.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, camp III, 3100 m. (type).
Ennea curvilamella sensu von Mts., 1897 in part, non Smith. Gulella ovalis (Thiele).
Ennea paradoxula von Mts., 1895a.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, Karevia (type).
Ptychotrema paradoxulum (von Mts.).
Ennea planidens von Mts., 1892.     Zaire, Semliki Valley, Bugundi (Orani) (Buginda)(type).
Gulella planidens (von Mts.).
Ennea quadrinodata von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, Semliki Valley, Bukende (type).
Ptychotrema quadrinodatum (von Mts.).
Ennea runsorana von Mts., 1892.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, Karevia, (syntypes). Von Martens later (1897) spelt the epithet with two ss.
Ptychotrema runsoranum (von Mts.).
Ennea stuhlmanni von Mts., 1892a.     Uganda, Masaka, Buddu (holotypes).
Ptychotrema stuhlmanni (von Mts.).
Ennea triplicina von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, Semliki Valley, Bugundi (type).
Gulella (Plicigulella) triplicina (von Mts.).
Geostilbia stuhlmanni von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, W. slope of Butagu Valley, bamboo forest at 2600 m. (type).
Nothapalus stuhlmanni (von Mts.).
Glessula runssorina von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, Butagu Valley at 3100 m., ‘Lager III’(syntypes).
Bocageia runssorina (von Mts.).
Hapalus delicatus (Taylor) var. gracilior von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, Semliki River, Ongenya (type).
Opeas delicatum gracilior (von Mts.). This is unlikely to be related to the typical coastal race. Pilsbry (1919) puts it in Curvella
Hapalus conoideus von Mts., 1892.     Zaire, Migere in Butumbi, ‘am Süufer des Ngesi’ (type).
Curvella conoidea (von Mts.).
Helicarion auriformis Thiele, 1911.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, W. slope of Butagu Valley at 2600 m. (also Schubotz specimens from Kwidjwi Island and Upper Ituri) (syntypes).
Helicarion lymphascens sensu von Mts., 1897 non lymphaseus Morelet.
Mesafricarion auriformis (Thiele). Pilsbry (1919) selected the Butagu Valley as type locality.
Helicarion issangoensis Thiele, 1911.     Zaire, Semliki R. ferry (Issango) and Ruwenzori, W. foot, Karevia (syntypes).
Helicarion cailliaudi sensu von Mts. in part non Morelet (as Vitrina).
? Chlamydarion issangoensis (Thiele)
Helicarion stuhlmanni von Mts., 1895a.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, W. slope of Butagu Valley in bamboo forest, 2600 m. (type).
Chlamydarion stuhlmanni (von Mts.).
Helicarion subangulatus von Mts., 1895a.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, Semliki Valley, Bukende (Bundeko) fide von Mts., 1897 – almost the same place, as pointed out by Pilsbry( (1919) (type).
Same (correct genus not known).
Helicarion succulentus von Mts., 1895a. (as succulentes     Zaire, Ruwenzori, W. slope of Butagu Valley in bamboo forest, 2600 m. (type).
Chlamydarion succulentus (von Mts.).
Helix bellula von Mts., 1892a.     Uganda, Buddu (said to have been collected by Emin & Stuhlmann (type).
Trochozonites bellula (von Mts.).
Helix bukobae von Mts., 1895.     Tanzania, Bukoba (type).
Halolimnohelix bukobae (von Mts.).
Helix butumbiana von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, Migere in Butumbi (holotype; one specimen in BM has been considered a paratype).
Prositala butumbiana (von Mts.).
Helix karewia von Mts., 1892.     Zaire, W. foot of Ruwenzori, Karewia (type).
Haplohelix karewia (von Mts.).
Helix runssorina von Mts., 1895a.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, W. slope of Butagu Valley at 3000 m. and Camp III, 3100 m.(syntypes).
? Halolimnohelix runssorina (von Mts.).
Isidora strigosa von Mts., 1897.    Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Bukoba (also Masai-Nyika (Neumann) and Lake Victoria (Emin & Junker)) (syntypes).
? Bulinus trigonus (von Mts.).
Isidora transversalis von Mts., 1897.    Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Bumbide Island, Ndukali (type).
Bulinus transversalis (von Mts.).
Lanistes stuhlmanni von Mts., 1897.    Tanzania, Dar es Salaam (syntypes).
Lanistes ovum (Peters) var. plicosus von Mts., 1897. (non von Mts., 1879, a Madagascan species).    Tanzania, Ugogo, Ilindi (Emin & Stuhlmann) (also between Tabora and Lake Tanganyila (Böhm & Reichard) (syntypes).
Lanistes ovum (Peters).
Limicolaria acuminata von Mts., 1895.    Zaire, W. of Lake Albert, NW Lendu, forest of R. Boa at about 2°10’ N. (type).
Limicolaria flammulata (Pfr).
(All Limicolaria reductions are those of Crowley and Pain, 1970)
Limicolaria cailliaudi (Pfr.) var. stuhlmanni von Mts., 1891.    Tanzania, Ugogo, Matangisi (type).
Limicolaria cailliaudi (Pfr.).
Limicolaria colorata ‘Smith’ var. fuscescens von Mts., 1897.    Zaire, S. shore of Lake Albert Edward, Migere and Iwinsa in Butumbi. Tanzania, Bukoba, Karagwe, Kuforo (syntypes).
Limicolaria martensiana fuscescens von Mts. (Smith never described a Limicolaria colarata). Pilsby (1919) does not mention the Tanzanian locality.
Limicolaria martensiana (Smith) var. multifida von Mts., 1895.    Zaire, between Lakes Albert and Edward and W. foot of Runssoro (Stuhlmann); Kenya, Lake Victoria (Fischer; Neumann) (syntypes).
Limicolaria martensiana martensiana (Smith).
Limicolaria martensiana (Smith) var. pallidistriga von Mts., 1895.    Zaire, S. of Lake Albert Edward, Matambuka (Vichumbi) (type).
Limicolaria martensiana (Smith).
Limicolaria nilotica (Pfr.) var. emini von Mts., 1891.    Tanzania, Ugogo, Mjassa (syntypes).
Burtoa nilotica giraudi (Bgt.).
Limicolaria nilotica (Pfr.) var. oblonga von Mts., 1895.    Tanzania, S. shores of Victoria Nyanza (later references give between Bukesse and Ngome) (syntypes).
Burtoa nilotica giraudi (Bgt.).
Limnaea humerosa von Mts., 1897.    Uganda, Mengo. Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Itole (also Umbugwe, Irangi and Bubu R. near Irangi (Neumann)) (syntypes).
Lymnaea natalensis Krauss.
Limnaea nyansae von Mts., 1892a.     Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Bukoba, Talalyo (Towalio) near Ndukali (syntypes).
Lymnaea natalensis Krauss.
Limnaea undussumae von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, W. Lake Edward, Rumande. Tanzania, Undussuma, brook beyond the Tararo (syntypes).
Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Pilsby (1919) chose Undussuma as the type locality.
Melampus hypoleucus von Mts., 1897.     Zanzibar Island, between Ngambo and Nasimoyo (also Tanzania, Pangani (Conradt)) (syntypes).
Melania tornata von Mts., 1892a.     Zaire, Duki R., near Buessa, W. of Lake Albert Edward (syntypes).
Poadoma tornata (von Mts.).
Mutela bourguignati Bgt. var. smithi von Mts., 1897.     Uganda, Buddu (also ?Kenya, Mhugu (Neumann) and Tanzania, Russisi and Maissome Island (Emin Pasha)) (syntypes).
Mutela bourguignati Bgt. var. truncata von Mts., 1897.     Uganda, Buddu (also ?Kenya, Mhugu (Neumann)) (syntypes).
Mutela nilotica (Cailliaud) var. emini von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, Lake Albert, near Kassenje, also used for spoons in S. Undussuma and by the Babira (Wandel-Wawira) probably from Ituri R. (syntypes).
Mutela emini von Mts.. Pilsby and Bequaert (1927) very sensibly restricted the type locality to near Kassenje as all the material Stuhlmann saw probably came from Lake Albert.
Opeas limpidum von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, Bukende (type).
Streptostele limpida (von Mts.).
Opeas streptosteloides von Mts., 1897.     Uganda, Buddu (von Mts. states Emin Pasha and Stuhlmann but the latter went alone to Uganda (type).
Streptostele streptosteloides (von Mts.).
Opeas subvaricosum von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, Camp III (type).
Varicostele subvaricosa (von Mts.).
Physa trigona von Mts., 1892a.     Tanzania, Lake Victoria, SW. Creek, Bukome (type).
Bulinus trigonus (von Mts.).
Planorbis apertus von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, Lake Albert Edward, Kirima (type).
Ceratophallus apertus (von Mts.).
Planorbis choanomphalus von Mts. var. basisulcatus von Mts., 1897.     Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Kassarasi Island and Bukoba Bay. Zaire, Lake Albert Edward, Vitschumbi, subfossil (syntypes).
Biomphalaria choanomphala (von Mts.).
Planorbis sudanicus von Mts. unspec. group major, von Mts. 1897.    Based on many specimens including previous authors Smith, Bourguingnat and Sturany; Stuhlmann localities: Tanzania, Karagwe, Ruanyana See near Weranyanye, Zaire, Lake Edward, Kiruwe, Vitschumbi and Katarenge (subfossil) (syntypes).
Biomphalaria sudanica (von Mts.).
Spaerium stulmanni von Mts., 1897.     Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Bussisi (Busisi), Smyth-Sund (type).
Spatha divaricata von Mts., 1897.     Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Speke Gulf, Simin R. near Massansa (Emin & Stuhlmann) (type).
Aspatharia divaricata (von Mts.).
Spatha rotundata von Mts., 1897.     Tanzania, Wembers Steppe, near Nyaua (type).
Aspatharia rotundata (von Mts.).
Spatha stuhlmanni von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, Undussuma, Itari R. (Emin & Stuhlmann)(type).
Aspatharia stuhlmanni (von Mts.).
Spatha trapezia von Mts., 1897.     Uganda, Lake Victoria, Buddu (von Mts. states Emin and Stuhlmann but the latter went alone to Uganda). Tanzania, SW. Lake Victoria near Nyemirembe and Nyamagotso (Emin & Stuhlmann) (also Tanzania, Bukoba and ?Kenya, Mhugu (Neumann)) (syntypes).
Aspatharia trapezia (von Mts.).
Spatha trapezia von Mts. var. senilis von Mts., 1897.     Uganda, Buddu, TOwalio and Soweh Island (Emin & Stuhlmann see note above)(syntypes).
Aspatharia trapezia (von Mts.).
Spatha wahlbergi (Krauss) var. dorsalis von Mts., 1897.     Tanzania, Ugogo, Ilindi (Hirindi) and Myesse (Mssesse) (Emin & Stuhlmann) (also Mozambique, R. Zambesi, Tette and Sena (Peters) (syntypes).
Aspatharia wahlbergi hartmanni (von Mts.).
Streptaxis pusillus von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, Ituri R., Bukende (syntypes).
Gonaxis pusillus (von Mts.). There should be a specimen at the BM.
Streptostele costulata von Mts., 1892.     Zaire, Butumbi (syntypes).
Same. Syntype at BM.
Streptostele costulata von Mts. var.
Stuhlmannia picta Simroth, 1893.     Tanzania, Bukoba, Bussiro (syntypes).
Bukobia picta (Simroth). Stuhlmannia Simroth is a later homonym of Stuhlmannia Michaelsen, 1890. There is also a Stuhlmannia Taub., 1895 in the Leguminosae but that of course is not affected in any way by zoological names.
Subulina bicolumellaris von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, Karewia, 1175 m. (syntypes).
Same. Syntype in the BM.
Subulina castanea von Mts., 1895a.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, 2500–3800 m. (syntypes).
Oreohomorus castaneus (von Mts.).
Subulina elegans von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, Ngesi to Mwutan, Ongenya, Bundeko, Bukendi, Bugundi, Migere. Uganda, Monyonyo (syntypes).
Pseudoglessula elegans (von Mts.). There is a syntype in the BM.
Subulina mamboiensis Smith var. nitida von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, Migere in Butumbi (syntypes).
Oreohomorus nitidus (von Mts.). Raised to specific rank by Thiele.
Subulina mamboiensis Smith var. circumstriata von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, bamboo forest, 2600 m. (type).
Oreohomorus circumstriatus (von Mts.). Raised to specific rank by Thiele.
Subulina paucispira von Mts., 1892.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, Karevia and ferry at R. Ituri (syntypes).
Nothapalus paucispira (von Mts.). Following Pilsby and Connolly I leave this curiously formed epithet as a noun – the genus is masculine.
Subulina pergracilis von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, between Lake Albert Edward (Ngesi) and Lake Albert (Mwutan), Issango Ferry, W. Issango, Itiri, and Bukende (syntypes).
Subulina perstriata von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, Migere in Butumbi (type).
Subulina pinguis von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, Bukende on the Issango (type).
Subulina silvicola von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, Migere in Butumbi (type).
Subulona silvicola (von Mts.).
Subulona clavaeformis Thiele, 1911.     Tanzania, Uluguru Mts., Lukwangule Peak, 2500 m. (syntypes).
Subulina mamboiensis sensu von Mts. in part non Smith.
Succinea corticalis von Mts., 1895.     Tanznia, Wembers Steppe (syntypes).
Probably Quickia concisa (Morelet).
Tayloria iterata von Mts., 1897.     Tanzania, Uluguru Mts., Tegetoro (type).
Thapsia curvatula von Mts., 1897.     Tanzania, Uluguru Mts., Tegetoro (also East Usambara Mts., Derema (Conradt) and Magao, Kitohaui (Lieder) (syntypes).
Thapsia hanningtoni Smith var. fasciata von Mts..     Zaire, Ituri Ferry. Uganda, Manyonyo (syntypes). Identity not certain but unlikely in reality to have anything to do with true hanningtoni and much more likely related to T. cinnamomeozonata Pilsby and T. eucosmia Pilsby both described from the Ituri Forest.
Thapsia hanningtoni Smith var. stuhlmanni von Mts..     Zaire, Butumbi and W. foot of Ruwenzori, Karevia. Tanzania, S. Lake Victoria, Kome Island (syntypes). Identity uncertain but probably not related to hanningtoni.
Trichotoxon (Spirotoxon) elegans Simroth, 1897.     Tanzania, Kingani R. Dunde (syntypes).
Urocyclus elegans (Simroth) (Spirotoxon used as genus and subgenus in the same paper).
Trichotoxon maculatum Simroth, 1897.     Uganda, Sesse (Sese) Islands, (holotype).
Trichotoxon heynemanni (Simroth).
Trichotoxon (Spirotoxon) stuhlmanni Simroth, 1903.     Tanzania, without recorded locality (holotype).
Urocyclus elegans (Simroth).
Trochonanina mesogaea von Mts., 1895.     Zaire, W. of Lake Albert (type)
Unio ambifarius von Mts., 1897.     Tanzania, Dar es Salaam (holotype).
Caelatura ratidota (Charmes).
Unio emini von Mts., 1897.   Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Speke Gulf, Simin R. near Massansa and Busisi (syntypes). (Originally omitted in error – see Conchologists’ Newsletter 120: 444 (1992)
Caelatura hauttecouri emini (von Mts.).
Unio multicolor von Mts., 1897.     Tanzania, SW. Lake Victoria, Sirwa Island and Bukoba (also near Bukoba (Neumann)) (syntypes).
Caelatura hauttecoeuri ruellani (Bgt).
Unio ngesianus von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, Lake Albert Edward (Ngesi), NW. shore, Kishakka and sbfossil near Kaha-ekjo (syntypes).
Caelatura stuhlmanni (von Mts.).
Unio stuhlmanni von Mts., 1897.     Zaire, SW. Lake Albert Edward, Vitschumbi (Vichumbi), Kiruwe and Katarenge (syntypes).
Caelatura stuhlmanni (von Mts.).
Vaginula aequatotialis Simroth, 1895.     Zaire, Ongenya (holotype).
Laevicaulis striatus (Simroth).
Vaginula decipiens Simroth, 1895.     Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Mwanza. Ssosswe Island (type).
Laevicaulis striatus (Simroth).
Vaginula obscura Simroth, 1895.     Zaire, Undussuma (type).
Laevicaulis striatus (Simroth).
Vaginula schnitzleri Simroth, 1893.     Zaire, W. foot of Ruwenzori, Karevia, 1300 m. (holotype).
Laevicaulis stuhlmanni (Simroth).
Vaginula striata Simroth, 1895.     Zaire, W. Lendu, Massiba (Massobba) (type).
Laevicaulis striatus (Simroth).
Vaginula stuhlmanni Simroth, 1893.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, Beni, 1300 m. (holotype).
Laevicaulis stuhlmanni (Simroth).
Vaginula substriata Simroth, 1895.     Zaire, Kibali-Ituri, W. Lendu, Abumbi R.,1200 m. (holotype).
Pseudoveronicella liberiana (Gould).
Vitrina? oleosa von Mts., 1895a.     Zaire, Ruwenzori, Camp IV (syntypes).
Vivipara costulata von Mts., 1892a.     Tanzania, Lake Victoria, SW. end, Kassarosi Island (syntypes).
Bellamya costulata (von Mts.).
Vivipara costulata von Mts. var. trilirata von Mts., 1897.     Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Bumbide Island, Ndukai (type).
Bellamya costulata trilirata (von Mts.).
Vivipara meta von Mts., 1897.     Tanzania, S. Lake Victoria, Kassarosi Island (Kassarasi) (syntypes).
Bellamya phthinotropis (von Mts.).
Vivipara phthinotropis von Mts., 1892a.     Tanzania, SW. part of Lake Victoria, Namagotso (Njamagotso) (type).
Bellamya phthinotropis (von Mts.).
Vivipara rubicunda von Mts. var. subturrita von Mts., 1897.     Tanzania, S. Lake Victoria, Bussisi (holotype).
Bellamya unicolor (Olivier) (fide D. S. Brown in litt.).
Vivipara trochearis von Mts., 1892a.     Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Sirwa Island (syntypes).
Bellamya trochlearis (von Mts.).
Vivipara unicolor (Olivier) var. conoidea von Mts 1897.     Zaire, Lake Albert Edward, S. end, Iwinsa, subfossil (syntypes).
Bellamya capillata conoidea (von Mts.).
Vivipara unicolor (Olivier) var. elatior von Mts 1897.     Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Bussisi, Smyth Sund and Emin Pasha Gulf, Nyemirembe (syntypes).
Bellamya unicolor (Olivier).


Itinerary of Franz Stuhlmann


Extracted from The Conchologists’Newsletter,
No. 110, pp.211–216, published September 1989

Incomplete itinerary of F. Stuhlmann based mainly on one compiled by J. B. Gillett mainly from enumerations of Stuhlmann’s plant collections in various works and Stuhlmann’s own books and papers augmented by records from papers by E. von Martens.

One of the most detailed sources of place names current at the time is undoubtedly the map given in Stuhlmann’s own book describing his journey with Emin Pascha. This map (Übersichtskarte der Expedition des Dr. Emin Pascha 1890—1892. Gezeichnet von Dr. Richard Kiepert.) gives an enormous number of names. Pilsbry (1919) and Pilsbry and Bequaert (1927) give gazetteers and maps which are essential for interpreting the many different spellings.

There are fairly frequent errors in the literature where either the wrong year has been cited or a wrong month. Several of these probably still remain in this list. Records said to be from Zanzibar, Ms Chaiyu on 12 Jan. 1888 and Msul Bani on 22 Mar. are clearly in error. The first might be 1889 but would then refer to Mozambique; the second is clearly a place in Egypt near Cairo. The locality Matthews which appears on several mollusc labels probably refers to the house of Sir Lloyd Mathews (1850–1901) First Minister in Zanzibar about that time. Stuhlmann used a multitude of different spellings for places, a fact already commented on by Pilsbry. Zanzibar has been kept separate from Tanzania for convenience; in those days it was much the more important place.

23 Feb.       Left Hamburg for Africa
8 Mar. Egypt     Alexandria Canal
9 Mar. "     Alexandria, Marint
12 Mar. "     ‘in einem Nilarm near Bulale’
22 Mar. "     Msul Bani (not traced but Bani is a common place name in Egypt)
24 Mar. "     Cairo, Mukattam
27 Mar. "     Gipfel das Akatta-Gebirg (? near Suez)
8 Apr. "     Alexandria: surely an error but given twice
17 Apr. Zanzibar     arrived in Zanzibar
May Zanzibar     river near Matthews
17 May Zanzibar     near the German clubhouse
20 May       Nile Valley – must be error for March
31 May Zanzibar     
4 June Zanzibar     Ugambi to Nasimoja
20 June Zanzibar      Zanzibar Town
21–29 June   Tanzania     Bagamoyo
29 June Tanzania     R. Kingani
July Tanzania     Bagamoyo
12 July Zanzibar     
17 July Zanzibar     Muere R.
17 Aug.–6 Oct. Tanzania     Usegua and Unguu (see Stuhlmann, 1889)
Aug. "     Usaramo, Kikoha to Rosako and near Msere on banks of the R. Wami
18 Aug. "     Kikoko (?Kikoha)
20 Aug. "     Rosako Sacurile
22 Aug. "     Ukwere, Tsurutu’s (Tsurutac)
27–28 Aug. "     Usegua, Rukaguru R., near Mbusina (Mbusine)
3 Sept. "     banks of R. Wami, near Msere and Mbusina
9 Sept.       said to be in Zanzibar but this clashes with above unless he hurried back for some reason.
Sept. Tanzania     R. Eban S. of Korogwe
22 Sept. "     R. Rufu (Ruvu) near Korogwe
20 Oct. Zanzibar     Matthews
24 Oct. "     
2 Nov. "     beach
Nov. "     in general and R. near Matthews, behind the German colony and Jambiana
10 Nov. "     Kombeni
15–30 Nov. "     
28 Nov. "     Matthews
2 Dec. "     Tschueni-Bassin (Tschueni-Bani)
9 Dec. "     Walloso
11–12 Dec. "     ‘Brunner’ (presumably one of the cave-wells)
12–13 Dec. "     Kokotoni
(he also collected in Dar es Salaam sometime during 1888)
2–8 Jan.. Mozambique     Mozambique town
9–31 Jan. "     Quelimane
2 Feb. "     Gugurini (?Pugurini) 10 hours N. of Quelimane
6 Feb. Zanzibar     near Tschukuani and near Tschueni
7 Feb. "     
10 Feb. Mozambique     Pugurini, Quelimane and Ujama Ratta
11 Feb. Zanzibar     (would seem impossible – error)
19 Feb. Mozambique     Quaqua R. near Mopera not far from Quelimane
25–27 Feb. "     Quelimane
1 Mar. "             "
10 Mar. "             "
16 Mar. "             "       , Njangane (Ujangone)
23 May Zanzibar     Muera R.
25 May "     path to Masingini (Messingini)
28 May "     path to Tschueni
29 May "     path to Masingini and path to Kisimkasi mdng (mundung, mouth)
11 June "     
11 July Mozambique     Quelimane
Aug. Zanzibar     Kidoti and Kokotoni
15 Aug. "     Tumbatu I.
30 Aug. "     Kokotoni
9 Sept.. "     NE of Kokotoni, Bach Jetenge
12–30 Sept. "     Kokotoni (Kotoni)
‘31’ Sept. "     Kokotoni, Unguu
9 Oct. "     path to Tschueni
Oct. "     In Zanzibar for first half collecting mainly at Kokotoni
Nov. Tanzania     at Pangani during this month
4–5 Dec. "     Pangani
Dec. "     He also collected at Ras Muhesa and the Kingani mouth of the Ruvu (Rufu) R. some time in this month
Jan. Tanzania     was in Pangani part of this month; wounded
26 Apr. Tanzania     leaves Bagamoyo having collected there several days
3 May "     Ukwere, Msua
11 May "     a report he was in Pangani must be erroneous
18 May "     Mrogoro (Morogoro)
22 May "     Ukami to Usagara, Mkatta-Bach and Innern am Mkatta-Bach
May "     Kimambira (Kimamba) and NNE. of Kilosa, Farhani
27 May "     leaves Kondoa (near Kilosa, not the better known Kondoa-Irangi
1 June "     Kidebe (?Kidete)
6 June "     there must be an error in a report that he collected at Kissemo in Usarmo – probably refers to May
22 June "     leaves Mpwapwa
29 June "     Ugogo, Ipala and Mgesse (Mssesse)
2 July "     Ugogo, Mtangisi
4 July "     Ugogo, Ilindi
7 July "     Ugogo, Bach Bubu near Mbahi
9 July "     Ugogo, Bachbelt between Unyangwire (a) and Mbiwe
13 July "     Ugogo to Tabora, Mbare, Gunda Mkali
16 July "     Lake Tschaia (Tschai, Chaya) and Unyansi, Bibisande
20 July "     Tura
July "     Muhala (Mhwala)
23 July "     Rubgua (Rubugwa)
27 July "     Unyanyembe, Tabora and Oalla (Oalle) Bach
28 Aug. "     leaves Tabora
13 Sept. "     Wembere Steppe, Manjonga (Manyonga) Bach
19 Sept. "     Ussukuma, Nindo- Ssalaue
20 Sept. "     30 km. S. of southern tip of Lake Victoria, Salaue (Salawe, Ssalaue), Ussambiro
22 Sept. "     southern tip, Kiaffumaqua, Makolo, Uhoka
Sept. "     Busisi (Bussisi, Bussissi), Bukumbi (Usinja) and Nyakamaja (Njakamaja)
24 Sept. "     Kwa Muleschi
28 Sept. "     Smyth Sund, Bussisi
29 Sept. "                             "
1 Oct.. "                             "         and Kassarasi I. (?error)
5 Oct. "     Speke Gulf, Massansa, Simin (Simiyu) R.
10 Oct. "     Emin Pascha Gulf, Bukome.
12 Oct. "     Ussukuma, Unsimbo 4° 4’ S.
13 Oct. "     a report that he collected in Wembers Steppe at Mto (R.) Manyonya 30° 54’ obviously refers to Sept.
20 Oct. "     leaves Busisi.
21 Oct. "     S. shore Lake Victoria, Bukense to Ngoma.
23 Oct. "     Ndukali, Bumbide I. and Ikuru I.
25 Oct. "     Bumpeko.
Oct. "     Biharomulo District, Ukomo.
28 Oct. "     Kassarasi I.
29 Oct. "     Busisi (? error for Sept.).
30 Oct. "     Bukome
31 Oct. "          "
Oct. "     Bumbide
2 Nov. "     Emin Pascha Gulf, Itole
3 Nov. "     SW. Emin Pascha Gulf, Nyemirembe (Namirembe)
4 Nov. "     Nyemirembe and Nyamgotso.
10 Nov. "     Bukoba District, Ihangaro
11 Nov. "                                     "
12 Nov. "                                     "
Nov. "     Kassesse, Tschamtuara
16 Nov. "     arrives Bukoba and stays there until 6 Dec.
18 Nov. "     Kome I.
6 Dec. "     begins boat trip to Uganda which lasts until 25 Jan. 1891 and takes in the Sese (Sesse) Is.
8 Dec. Uganda     Buddu, Towalio (Tavalyo)
9 Dec. "     Buddu, Bare
12 Dec. "     Sesse Is.
22 Dec. "     Soweh I. (Ssowe)
26 Dec. "     Mengo
28 Dec. "     Mengo; mention of W. Karagwe erroneous ?
5 Jan. "     Mengo
10 Jan. "     Murchison Bay, Uferwald, Manyonyo (Manyongo, Manjonjo, Munyonyo, Menjonjo)
11 Jan. "     Manyonyo
12 Jan. "             "
22 Jan. "     Katerenge
23 Jan. "             "
25 Jan. Tanzania     arrives back in Bukoba and stays until 12 Feb.
12 Feb. "     leaves Bukoba
15 Feb. "     Lake Ikimba
Feb. "     Karagwe, Kitangulo
Feb. "     Bugenue
20 Feb. "     Kinuni
24 Feb. "     Karagwe, Kassesse; in Karagwe until 4 Apr.
5 Mar. "            "     , Ruanyana See near Weranyanye (Weryanye, Weranjanje)
9 Mar. "     Weranyanye-See
16 Mar. "     Kafuro
1 Apr. "     prepares to leave Karagwe
4 Apr. "     Karagwe, Kagenyi
10 Apr. "     Kagere R., Kavingo
30 Apr. Uganda     Butumbi, Mts. above Katanda
6 May "     Butumbi, Migere
8 May Zaire     Butumbi, Iwinsa
9 May "     S. side of Lake Albert Edward, Iwinsa, subfossilsin old lake marl beds also Vitschumbi (Vitshumbi) and Matambuka
10 May "     SW. Lake Albert Edward, Vitshumbi until 14 May
15 May "     Kiruwe beach (sometimes erroneously given as 1892)
18 May "     SW., Rumande
May "     NW., Kirima
21 May "     NW., Kissakka (Kishakka) (Lake Edward often called Ngesi)
4 June "     E. of Issango R., Hauptlings, Karungo, Kigogo (error for July)
6 June "     Karevia, bamboo forest at 2600 m.
8 June "      begins ascent of Ruwenzori (Runsoro, Runssoro)
9 June "     bamboo forest, 2600 m.
10 June "     Hochmoor, 3000 m.
11 June "     presuambly same
12 June "     2500–3800 m. Camp III at 3100 m.
13 June "                             "
14 June "     descending mountain
15 June "     W. foot of Ruwenzori, Karevia (Karawia) at 1175 and 492 m. and around here until 19 June
20 June "     NW. Ruwenzori, Karavia to Kiviriri
30 June "     Tararo (error for July)
1 July "     Issango Ferry
2 July "     leaves Semliki R., W. Issango to Itiri
3 July "     Itiri R., Bundeko and E. of Issango, Karungo
4 July "     Itiri R., Bundeko and Bukende until 6 July
7 July "     Bukende and Bugundi
21 July "     Undusuma (Undsuma)
27 July "     Undusuma, Bach Tararo and around here until 5 Aug.
12 Aug. "     R. Duki, Buessa
15 Aug. "     leaves Gungulei in Buessa; W. of S. end of Lake Albert
17 Aug. "     crosses Duki R.
20 Aug. "     Ituri R. and in area until 8 Sept.
25 Aug. "     near ferry
8 Sept. "     Kibilibissi
10 Sept. "     W. of Upper Ituri R.
15 Sept. "     Ituri R. until 20 Sept.
17 Sept. "     Lendu Plateau
23 Sept. "     Lendu Plateau , Bach Que and Ssonga
26 Sept. "     Andebali (furtest point N. reached)
2 Nov. "     Wabotchi
4 Nov. "     Ituri R. until 11 Nov.
12 Nov. "     Undusuma until 14 Nov.
20 Nov. "     NW. Lendu, Boa Bach (error for Sept. ?
24 Nov. "     Lake Albert until 1 Dec.
26 Nov. "     SW., Kassenye
27 Nov. "                     "        , and NW., Kirima
Nov. "     Walegga Plateau, Nasso
10 Dec. "     Undusuma; parts from Emin Pascha
18 Dec. "     Orani (Oransi) district, Bugindi (Bugundi)
26 Dec. "     Lake Albert, Kassenye until 28 Dec.; report of collecting on W. Issango R., Andetei District on same day must be incorrect
25 Jan. Zaire     S. end of Lake albert Edward, Kiruve
28 Jan. Tanzania     Mpororo, Kayonsa Mt. (Kanyonsa)
30 Jan. "                          "        
6 Feb. "     Karagwe, near Kayonsa, Kagera R.
15 Feb. "     arrives in Bukoba
20 Feb. "     leaves Bukoba
Feb. "     Ihangiro
Feb. "     Kimoani Plateau
Feb. "     Ganda, Bukome
3 Mar. "     Kagehi
6 Mar. "     Usinga, Bugando
7. Mar. "     E. Usinja, Ngama
11 Mar. "     leaves Mwanza for Bukoba by boat
13 Mar. "     Kome I., Bumbire (Bumbide)
17 Mar. "     arrives in Bukoba
14 May "     leaves Bukoba for Mwanza, Uera, Usiha
19 May "     Maissome I.
24 May "     Usakuma, Njangusi
27 May "     leaves Nyunezi near Mwanza for coast
4 June "     Wembere Steppe until 6 June
5 June "     SW. Nyaua
June "     W. of Kondoa Irangi
June "     Masai Steppe
1 July "     Mamboya until 4 July
10 July "     Kivugu
11 July "     Rosako
12 July "     arrives in Bagamoyo
13 July Zanzibar     Hospital for 7 weeks
20 Oct. Germany     on leave
Mostly Tanzania     Dar es Salaam
Sept. "     S. Lake Manyara, Irangi and Bubu R.
Nov. "     Umbugwe
Jan. "     Bagamoyo; Viansi;Vikindo; Ruvu (Kingani) R.
Feb. "     Dunda; Kangani; Marui; Bagamoyo; Rukinga; Madimola; Matisi; Dar es Salaam (the Ruvu journey is shown on map 10, Mitt. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. vol. 7 (1894)
11 Feb. "     Mani
11 Mar. "     Dar es Salaam
24–26 Mar. "                 "
2–5 Apr. "                 "
24–26 Apr. "                 "
Apr. "     Various places in Usagara and Usaramo; Manera
9 May "     Kunduchi
16 May "     Bagamoyo
1 June "     Ukani; Ndare
July "     Ukwera
4 Aug. "     Dar es Salaam
Sept. "     Dar es Salaam; leaves on a trip to the Uluguru Mts. (see Englar, Bot. Jahrb. 21:194 (1895) & 28:332 (1900)
Oct. "     Yegea; NW. Usaramo, Nhonge; Nghweme; Tununguo: Kidai; Ulugurus; on the Ruvo; Moora
1 Oct. "     Usaramo, Mengwe-Teich
4 Oct. "     Kissemo-Bach
16 Oct. "     E. Ulugurus, Mssumbisi-Bach
Oct. "     SE. Ulugurus, Ng’hweme
20 Oct. "     Kibungo
27 Oct. "     on the Ruvu
29 Oct. "     Moora
30 Oct. "     Tegetoro
Nov. "     Ulugurus including Mgeta Valley, Lukwangule Plateau, Kihurungu Mt., Mbagalala
6 Nov. "     ‘Central Uluguru (Nguru)’
22 Nov. "     Dundumi-Bach
Dec. "     remained in Ulugurus at least until 17th.
3–19 Feb.. "     Survey expedition at mouth of Rovuma R. on German-Portuguese border
1 Oct. "     Dar es Salaam Govt. Garden
8 Sept. Kenya     Kiambu District, Kikuyu Escarpment ("Kiknya-Berge bei Nairobi") (he must have been using the Kenya and Uganda Railway)


References and Bibliography of Franz Stuhlmann

Extracted from The Conchologists’ Newsletter,
No. 110, pp.217–219, published September 1989
Some works already mentioned in detail in the text are omitted.
Connolly, M. (1925). The non-marine Mollusca of Portugese East Africa. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 12: 105–220.
De Chapeaurouge (1929). Nachruf von Senator Dr. de Chapeaurouge in der allgeminen Sitzung der Geographischen Gesellschaft am 6 Dezember 1928. Geh. Aegierungsrat Prof. Dr. Franz StuhlmannMitt. Geogr. Ges. Hamburg 40: 3–8.
Engler, A. [Ed.] (1900). Die von W. Goetze und Dr Stuhlmann im Uluguru-gebirge, sowie die von W. Goetze in der kisaki- und Khutu- Steppe und in Uhehe gesammelten Pflanzen. Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 28: 332–510.
Joelson, F.S. (1928) Eastern Africa Today. London [section on Tanganyika Territory 1–5]
Meyer, H. (1929). Franz Stuhlmann. Ein Nachruf. Mitt. dtsch. Schutzgeb. 36(2): I–II & V–VIII.
Moorhead, A. (1960). The White Nile. London.
Pilsby, H.A. (1911). A review of the land mollusks of the Belgian Congo… Expedition, 1909–1915. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 40: 1–370.
Pilsby, H.A. & Bequaert, J. (1927). The aquaric mollusks of the Belgian Congo… Conco malacology. Bull. Am. Nat. Hist. 53: 69–602.
Rosenbaum, E. (1928). Stuhlmann, Franz Ludwig. Deutsches Biog. Jahrb. 10: 271–279, 339.
Simroth, H. (1893). Ueber die von Herrn Dr. Stuhlmann im inneren Ostafrika gesammelten Nacktschnecken Sber. naturf. Ges. Lpz. 19–21 (1892–94): 51–56 (British Museum [Nat. Hist.] copy received 5 June 1895 but van Goethem gives 1893. It is mentioned in Zoo. Rec. 1893 under No. 329 with a different pagination as ‘advance copies’. Van Goetham considers this valid publication but Zilch gives 1895).
Simroth, H. (1895). Die Nacktschnecken Ost Afrikas. Deutsch-Ost-Afrika 4 die Thierwelt Ost-Afrikas Lief. 1: 1–23, 3 plates. Berlin. (van Goetham gives 1895 but lief. 1 original cover is dated 1896; nevertheless van Goetham has, however, sent me a xerox of a "Sonder-Ausgabe" dated 1895).
Simroth, H. (1897). Ueber verschiedene Nacktschnecken. Sber. naturf. Ges. Lpz. 22–23 (1895–96): 140–154.
Simroth, H. (1903). Ueber die von Herrn Dr. Neumann in Abesssinien gesammelten aulacopoden Nacktschnecken. Zool. Jahrb. 19: 673–726. (British Museum [Nat. Hist.] copy received 16 March 1904 and original cover of part is dated 1904. Van Goetham, however, gives 1903 and once again has sent me a xerox of title page of an "Abdruck" dated thus).
Simroth, H. (1910). Lissopode Nacktschnecken von Madagascar, den Comoren und Mauritius. Unter Berücksichtigung Verwandter Arten. Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafriks (1903–1905) Wiss. Ergebn. 2(5): 577–622.
Simroth, H. (1913). Ueber die von Herrn Prof. Voeltzkow auf Madagascar und in Ostafrica erbeuteten Vaginuliden nebst verwandtem Material van ganz Afrika. Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafriks (1903–1905) Wiss. Ergebn. 3(3): 129–216.
Stuhlmann, F. (1886). Beiträge zur Anatimie der inneren Männlichen Geschlectstsorgane und zur Spermatogenese der Cypriden. Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool. 44: 536–569.
Stuhlmann, F. (1886). Reifung des Arthropodeneies nach Beobachtungen an Insekten, Spinnen, Myriapoden, und Peripatus. Ber. d. Naturf. Ges. Freiburg 1: 101–228, tt V–X with 242 figures.
Stuhlmann, F. (1887). Zur Kenntnis des Ovariums der Aalmutter (Zoarces viviparus, Cuv.) Abhandl. Geb. Naturwiss. Hamburg 10 (XII) 48 pp, tt I–IV.
Stuhlmann, F. (1888). Vorläufiger Bericht über eine mit Unterst¨tzung der Königlichen Akademie der Wisserschaften unternommene Reise nach Ost-Afrika, zur Untersuchung der Süsswasserfauna. Sber. Kön. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 49: 1255–1269.
Stuhlmann, F. (1889). Zweiter Bericht über eine mit Unterst¨tzung der Königlichen Akademie der Wisserschaften nach Ost-Afrika unternommene Reise. Sber. Kön. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1889: 645–660.
Stuhlmann, F. (1889). Bericht über eine Reise durch Useguha und Unguu (17 August–6 Oktober 1888) . Mitt. Geogr. Ges. Hamburg 1887/88: 143–175.
Stuhlmann, F. (1891). Beobachtungen über Geologie und Flora auf der route Bagamoyo = Tabora. Mitt. dtsch. Schutzgebeit 4: 48–58.
Stuhlmann, F. (1893–1901). Zoologische Ergebnisse einer in den Jahren 1888–1890 mit Unterstützung der Kgl. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin von Dr. Franz Stuhlmann in die Küstengebeite von Ostafrika unternommenen Reise. Berlin. Vol. 1 (1893), vol. 2 (1901) (collected from papers in Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst.)
Stuhlmann, F. (1894). Dr. F. Stuhlmanns Forschungsreisen in Usaramo. Mitt. dtsch. Schutzgebiet 7: 225–232 (see also Karte 10 [BlattII] after page 296)
Stuhlmann, F. (1894). ‘Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika.’ Berlin (this is vol. 1 of ‘Deutsch-Ost-Afrika’).
Stuhlmann, F. (1895). Botanische Notizen über die in der Zeit vom 23 September bis 17 Dezember 1894 unternommene Reise nach Uluguru. Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 21: 194–206.
Stuhlmann, F. (1896). Die Uluguru-Berge. Karte 4. Mitt. dtsch. Schutzgebiet 9: between 246/247.
Stuhlmann, F. (1898). Die wirtschaftliche Entwickelung Deutsch-Ost-Afrikas. Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft. Verhandl. Abt. Berlin-Charlottenburg 1897/98: 101–158.
Stuhlmann, F. (1901). Notizen über die Landwirtschaft auf ‘La Réunion’. Der Tropenpflanzer, Beihefte Band II Nr 1, 29 pp.
Stuhlmann, F. (1901–1903). Studienreise nach Niederländisch- und Britisch-Indien. Der Tropenpflanzer 5: 243–266, 351–364, 517–530; 6: 181–197; Beihefte Band IV Nr 1, 58 pp.
Stuhlmann, F. (1902). Notizen über die Tsetsefliege (Glossina morsitans Westw.)und die durch sie übertragene Surrahkrankheit in Deutsch-Ostafrika. Ber. Land- und Forstwirtschaft in Deutsch-Ostafrika 1(2): 137–153.
Stuhlmann, F. (1907). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Tsetsefliege (Glossina fusca und Gl. tachinoides). Arb. des Kaisl. Gesundheitsamte 26(3): 301–382, tt 1–4.
Stuhlmann, F. (1912). Ein kulturgeschichtlicher Ausflug in den Aures (Atlas von Süd-Algerien). Abhandl. Hamburg. KononialInst. Reihe B, 7 (10 der gesamt. Abhandl.) 205 pp., 17 plates.
Stuhlmann, F. (1914). Die Mazigh-Völker. Ethnographischen Notizen aus Sütunesien. Abhandl. Hamburg. KononialInst. 16 (27 der gesamt. Abhandl.), 59 pp., 8 plates and 2 photographs in natural colour.
Stuhlmann, F. (ed.) (1916–1921). Emin Pascha, Tagebücher, vols. 1–4, 6. Hamburg, Braunschweig & Berlin.
Theile, J. (1911). Mollusken der Deutschen Zentralafrika-Expedition. Wiss Ergebn. deutsch. Zentr.-Afr.-Exped. 1907–1908 3: 175–214.
Uhlig, C. (1929). Franz Stuhlmann zum Gedächtnis. Geograph. Zeitschrift 35: 521–526.
von Martens, E. (1891). Einige der von Dr. F. Stuhlmann auf der Expedition Emin Pascha’s in den Landschaften Ukwere, Ukami, Usagara und Ugogo gesammelten Land- und Süsswasser-Conchylien. Sber. Ges. naturf. Freunde Berl. 1891: 13–18.
von Martens, E. (1892a). Einige neue Arten von Land- und Süsswasser-Mollusken aus Uganda und dem Victoria-Nyanza. Sber. Ges. naturf. Freunde Berl. 1892: 15–19.
von Martens, E. (1892b). Ueber die von Dr. Stuhlmann in Nordost-Afrika gesammelten Land- und Süsswasser-Mollusken. Sber. Ges. naturf. Freunde Berl. 1892: 174–181.
von Martens, E. (1895a). Neue Arten von Landschnecken aus den Gebirgen Ost-Afrikas. Sber. Ges. naturf. Freunde Berl. 1895: 120–129.
von Martens, E. (1895b). Neue Land- und Süsswasser-Schnecken aus Ostafrika. NachBl. dt. Malakozool. Ges. 1895: 175–187.
von Martens, E. (1897). Ostafrikanische Mollusken gesammelt von Herrn. Dr. F. Stuhlmann 1888 und 1889. Mitt. naturh. Mus. Hamb. 14: 3–8. (2 Beiheft Jahrb. Hamb. Wiss. Anst.)
von Martens, E. (1897). Beschalte Weichthiere Deutsch-Ost-Africas, in Möbius, Deutsch Ost-Afrika, 4, Abt. 1 Berlin.
von Ramsay, E. (1928). Franz StuhlmannKolon. Rdsch. Jahrg 1928 Heft 12: 370–371.

B. Verdcourt