A revised list is presented of recent Bivalvia and aquatic Gastropoda found in Lake Tanganyika and waterbodies in its immediate vicinity. Explanations are given for numerous changes from the nomenclature and systematics in previous monographic treatments of this fauna (Leloup 1950, 1953). The aquatic molluscs found in Kigoma, Ujiji and the northern part of the Malagarasi delta during a short collecting expedition in 1979 are reported. The revised total of 15 bivalve species includes 9 endemic species and one endemic subspecies; Eupera ferruginea (Sphaeriidae) is reported for the first time from Lake Tanganyika. The revised total of 60 gastropod species includes 36 endemic species and one endemic subspecies. Seven gastropod taxa in Leloup’s list appear to have been recorded in error from Lake Tanganyika: ‘Vivipara’ costulata Martens, Lanistes farleri Craven, ‘Melania’ tanganyicensis Smith, ‘Cleopatra’ trisulcata Germain, ‘Planorbis’ apertus Martens, ‘Planorbis’ lamyi Germain and Biomphalaria choanomphala (Martens). The 13 additional gastropod species recognised arise from the splitting of Leloup’s taxa as well as adding species reported by subsequent authors. The presence of the planorbid genera Afrogyrus, Ceratophallus and Segmentorbis was confirmed by dissection of recently collected animals. Cleopatra trisulcata Germain is transferred to the genus Bellamya. The synonymy is proposed of Vivipara bridouxiana Bourguignat, 1888 with Cleopatra guillemei Bourguignat, 1885.