<p><em>Sepiola atlantica</em> (Orbigny in Férussac & Orbigny, 1840)</p>
Sublittoral inshore shallows, occasionally stranded in shore pools, to 150 metres. Clean sand or fine shell gravel substrate. Sometimes nektonic; fins move like wings to propel forwards or backwards . Exhalent funnel expels water steadily downwards to hover motionless , and strongly forwards to escape backwards (mantle-first) from danger . Often benthic during daytime, lying buried in sand  awaiting small crustacea. Concealment takes 20 seconds; exhalent funnel blows depression in sand, blown sand settles on top of sepiole; arms move any stones and brush sand to complete cover.
By expanding or contracting different chromatophores, colour can change dramatically in less than a second to provide camouflage  or startle and distract attackers, often with dark sienna . Sometimes discharges viscous sepia to distract predator as it jets away. Small crustacea  caught by rapidly uncurled pair of long captorial tentacles. Predators include fish. During mating on seabed, male holds female from below and behind while specialised left dorsal arm, hectocotylus, transfers spermatophores into her mantle cavity (TOL image). Between 30 and 150 eggs deposited on firm surfaces in each of several nocturnal spawning bouts spread over about three weeks. Female dies shortly after spawning. Young about 1.5mm long at hatching. Resemble miniature adults with relatively shorter arms and tentacles.
Rossia macrosoma (della Chiaje, 1829) (MSIP)
- Short plump ovoid mantle, total length body and tentacles to 180mm.
- Eight arms and two captorial tentacles kept coiled by mouth.
- Two rows of suckers on each arm, 4 or more rows distally.
- About ten rows of small suckers on captorial tentacle club.
- Bases of short, fleshy, rounded, lateral fins do not reach anterior or posterior of mantle.
- Mantle cavity open round entire perimeter with pronounced lip, without any fusion to head.
Sepietta oweniana d’Orbigny 1839 (MSIP)
- Stout ovoid mantle, total length body and tentacles to 110mm.
- Eight arms and two captorial tentacles.
- Dorsal pair of arms joined by membrane at base, intervening cleft obviously shorter than between other arms.
- Left dorsal arm, hectocotylus, greatly widened on male.
- About thirty rows of very small suckers on captorial tentacle club.
- Bases of large thin lateral fins do not reach anterior or posterior of mantle.
- Mantle cavity open ventrally and dorsally except for mid section of dorsal mantle edge fused to head.
- Short plump ovoid mantle, total length body and tentacles to 45mm.
- Eight arms, and two captorial tentacles kept coiled by mouth .
- Two rows of suckers on each arm, 4-8 rows distally on dorsal arms.
- Bases of large, thin, translucent, lateral fins do not reach anterior or posterior of mantle .
- Mantle cavity open ventrally and dorsally except for mid section of dorsal mantle edge fused to head .