<p><em>Doris verrucosa</em> Linnaeus, 1758</p>
Belgium and South coast England to Portugal and Spain, and into the Mediterranean and Adriatic. Also west Atlantic from Brazil to Massachusetts (GBIF map) and possibly southern Africa and Madagascar . Only accepted British record: Devon, 1900. Scottish records on NBN dubious.
Intertidal to about 15m depth (near Naples). Often found in areas with much soft sediment such as lagoons (e.g.Thau and Arcachon, France), in ports and on Zostera beds. On shore, often found under stones or in sponge growth. Diet: sponges; spicules exclusively from Hymeniacidon sanguinea (70%) and Halichondria panicea (30%) in faecal remains examined in Galicia, Spain by Urgorri & Besteiro (1984). In Bay of Naples, commonest and largest in June and July. Simultaneous hermaphrodite. Spawn mass: white wavy ribbon attached by edge in spiral of about 5 turns, (SSF)
- Large species, up to 70mm long.
- Ground colour of mantle usually whitish (DORIS), yellow , orange-brown , light violet, greyish (DORIS) or pale flesh-colour.
- Some lack surface pigment so colour almost uniform ground-colour.
- Pigmented specimens often have dorso-lateral bands of brown (SSF), red-brown (SSF), black-brown , grey(SSF), or violet (DORIS).
- Often, centre of dorsum is palest part of mantle (SSF).
- Tubercles, vary from very small to very large, virtually all inflated, clubbed or torpedo-shape (SSF) with narrower base .
- Tubercles sometimes darkened by pigment, occasionally nearly like distinctly darker black-brown apices of D. ocelligera .
- Rhinophores yellowish or whitish, similar to colour of mantle (SSF).
- Pair of large guard-tubercles at base of rhinophore, connected by collar usually bearing two smaller tubercles .
- Swollen lobe either side of mouth; no linear oral tentacles.
- Gills usually concolorous with, or paler than, mantle, rarely much darker .
- Gill pit surrounded by low collar bearing about one spatulate guard-tubercle per plume ; about 50% guard-tubercles noticeably larger than others.
- All tubercles smooth (not with protruding spicules), including those around gill and rhinophore pits.
- Spawn mass: white wavy ribbon in spiral of about 5 turns, (SSF).