New taxa of arcoid bivalves are described from the Arabian Sea. Arca symphenacis n. sp., Arca (Tetrarca) acuminata dayi n. ssp. and Anadara pesmatacis n. sp. are restricted to the cold water upwelling region of Oman. Barbatia perinesa n. sp. ranges from Masirah to the Mekran Coast. Some of these species have close affinities with taxa from the warm temperate waters of southern Africa. Noetiella chesneyi is a new name for the preoccupied N. minor Pallary which is found only at the northern end of the Arabian Gulf.