The historical and recent distribution of Margaritifera auricularia is evaluated based on museum specimens. A total of 210 specimens belonging to 129 lots were studied. All recent populations of M. auricularia are recorded from rivers flowing to the Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adriatic. No big differences were found between the inferred distribution and the two maps published previously. Only two specimens from the River Rhine have been found, one collected in the XVIII century and the other fossil. Supposed recent specimens from this river were wrongly labelled.